IL·18/·20/·22 A Versatile Turboprop Transport
Yefim Gordon.and Dmitriy Komissarov
ro (J) (J)
E ~ ~
0 "'0 0
C'I C'I ...
.- -0 .c en C'I •
=-CO ... ...• -
Ilyushin IL-18/20/22: A Versatile Turboprop Transport © 2004 Yefim Gordon and Dmitriy Komissarov ISBN 1 85780 157 1
Published by Midland Publishing 4 Watling Drive, Hinckley, LE10 3EY, England Tel: 01455 254 490 Fax: 01455 254 495 E-mail: [email protected]
Midland Publishing and Aerofax are imprints of Ian Allan Publishing ltd
Worldwide distribution (except North America): Midland Counties Publications 4 Watling Drive, Hinckley, LE10 3EY, England Telephone: 01455 254 450 Fax: 01455 233 737 E-mail: [email protected]
www.midlandcountiessuperstore.com North American trade distribution: Specially Press Publishers & Wholesalers Inc. 39966 Grand Avenue, North Branch, MN 55056 Tel: 6512771400 Fax: 6512771203 Toll free telephone: 8008954585 www.specialtypress.com
Title page: A beautiful air·to·air study of an IL-18B (possibly CCCP·75690, c/n 189001205?) as it cruises over cumulus clouds. The IL·18 is an elegant airliner. Il'yushin OKB
IL-18 Junior or Moscow Was Not Built in a Day ...... 7
Design concept and layout © 2004 Midland Publishing and Stephen Thompson Associates Printed in England by Ian Allan Printing ltd Riverdene Business Park, Molesey Road, Hersham, Surrey, KT12 4RG All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical or photo-copied, recorded or otherwise, without the written permission of the publishers.
The Civil Family ..
IL-18 Anatomy .................. 50
. .... 13
The Airline Workhorse IL-18 in Civilian Service ........... 60
An Airliner in Uniform Dedicated Military Versions.
The Sub Hunter - A Breed Apart .... 78
May We Have a Look Inside? The IL-38 in Detail ...
Post-Soviet Coots at Home (CIS Operators) ............. 96
IL-18 Operators Abroad .......... 104
The Fourth of July is a meaningful date for many Russians as well as for Americans - albeit In a totally different way. On 4th July 1957 the lI'yushin IL-18 turboprop airliner took off on its malden flight. Originally called Moskva, since it
. .. 69
. .. 92 The IL-12 was the lI'yushin OKB's first airliner to achieve production status and one of Aeroflot's principal types In the years when the turboprop IL-18 was developed. Here, an IL·12 sans suffixe registered CCCp·n3925 (ie, SSSR-L3925) is seen on the apron at Moscow-Vnukovo in 1958. Yeflm Gordon archive
enough to fill the needs of both Aeroflot, the sole Soviet airline, and foreign customers. Finally, the IL-18 was easy to master for crews converting to the type and suited for operating in fairly spartan conditions. By combining these virtues the IL-18 brought world fame and recognition not only to the design bureau led by Sergey Vladimirovich lI'yushin but to the Soviet aircraft industry as a whole. Starting in the late 1950s, there was not a single major event in Soviet (and later CIS) history where the IL-18 was not involved, directly or indirectly. The roles filled by this remarkable aircraft
IL-18 Family Drawings. The IL-18 in Colour ...
was designed and mass-produced in Moscow (though this popular name was shortlived), and code-named Coot by NATO, this Soviet equivalent of the Lockheed L-188 Electra proved to be extremely successful, and a few are in passenger service to this day. The IL-18 deserves to be called an outstanding design. For one thing, it came on the scene at exactly the right moment, which was no small thing; many an excellent aircraft has fallen victim to bad timing. For another, it was designed and built to a high engineering standard. Thirdly, it had quite a large production run -
Below: IL·18V CCCP·75554 (c/n 184007501) operated by Aeroflot's Central Directorate of International Air Services was preserved as a 'gate guard' at Moscow/Shermet'yevo·1 - a fitting tribute to the sterling service rendered by the type on Aeroflot's international routes. Yefim Gordon
Left: The IL-12B was developed into the IL-14 which saw even larger· scale production and wider service with Aeroflot. This is an IL-14P in Aeroflot's 1973-standard bluelwhite colours. Judging by the non-standard registration CCCP48098, this example belonged to one of the divisions of the Ministry of Aircraft Industry (MAP); IL-14s were normally registered in the 41***,61*** and 91*** blocks. via Avico Press
Below: Apart from the IL-12 and IL-14, the Soviet airline scene in the immediate post·war years and the 1950s was populated largely by the Lisunov Li-2 (which the lI'yushin types were designed to replace). CCCP·06134 is a Li-2P passenger version with no cargo door to starboard - and, jUdging by the registration in the 06*** block, again an MAP aircraft. Yefim Gordon archive
lccounted for the unusual 'pistol bullet' nose strongly reminiscent of the Boeing Model 307 Stratoliner. With a crew of five or six, ttle aircraft could carry up to 66 passengers II1d 900kg (1,980 Ib) of baggage over a maximum range of 2,800km (1,740 miles). The 'first-generation' IL-18 entered flight test on 17th August 1946, completing the manufacturer's test programme on 30th July 1947 with qood results, but did not progress beyond the prototype stage. This was because the aircraft was ahead of its time - not so much technically as 'marketologically', so to say. Passenger air traffic volumes were still small at the time, and Aeroflot's fleet of IL-12s and Lisunov Li-2 Cab licence-built Douglas DC-3 derivative) airliners, of which there were plenty, could still cope With the existing demand. The rival OKB-156 headed by Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev undertook a similar attempt, deriving the Tu-70 (aka Tu-12) airliner from the Tu-4 Bull strategic bomber (a copy of the Boemg B-29 Stratofortress - but that story lies outside the scope of this book). However, Tupolev had no better luck - only a single prototype of the Tu-70 was built for much the same reason. Another reason was that large piston-engined airliners had limited range, which made them uneconomical to operate on transcontinental routes in the USSR with its vast expanse. Thus, J ,rofile
The first aircraft to bear the IL-18 designation (and the first lI'yushin aircraft to feature a pressurised cabin) was this airliner powered by four Shvetsov ASh-73 radials which entered flight test on 17th August 1946. A fine aircraft in Its day, the 'first-generation' IL-18 was killed off by poor timing - there just wasn't enough passenger traffic to warrant aircraft of this size. Iyushin OKB
included Arctic and Antarctic research, development of sparsely populated regions, the whole range of civil aviation tasks and a wide range of military duties in Soviet/Russian Air Force (VVS - Voyenno-vozdooshnyye seely) and Soviet/Russian Naval Air Arm (AVMF -Aviahtsiya voyenno-morskovo flota) service. First and foremost, however, it was a civil aircraft, remaining one of the world's principal airliners for several decades. In the Soviet Union the years after the Second World War were characterised by the rapid development of numerous industry branches; these were first and foremost the branches having military importance, including the aircraft industry. New types of combat aircraft were developed and fielded; modern airfields and 4
airbases were constructed all over the country. At the same time the Soviet national economy was being rebuilt at a speedy pace; this applied not only to the western and central regions of the USSR which had been ravaged by the war but also to Siberia and the Soviet Far East regions which had a great potential but were largely underdeveloped. This, in turn, required workforce to be delivered to remote areas of the country at short notice. Thus, the immediate post-war years had all the prerequisites for the development of civil aviation in the USSR as well as the Soviet air arm. The first new Soviet airliners to enter mass production after the war emanated from the (opytno-konstrooktorskoye II'yushin OKB byuro - experimental design bureau), alias
OKB-240 (the number was a code allocated for security reasons). The twin-engined IL-12 (NATO codename Coach) and its successor, the IL-14 Crate, were powered by Shvetsov ASh-82 radial engines, offering a very modest seating capacity (27-40) and short range. True, even at that early stage there were attempts to create something bigger and better. In 1946 OKB-240 brought out an aircraft which, by some quirk of fate, was designated IL-18. It was a low-wing monoplane with conventional tail surfaces, a tricycle landing gear and four 2,300hp Shvetsov ASh-73 18-cylinder two-row radials (the 2,400-hp supercharged ASh-73TK version planned originally was not yet available). For the first time in the Soviet Union, it featured a pressurised cabin - a feature which
by the time traffic volumes began to grow the time was ripe for a new generation of passenger aircraft. In the 1950s the Western world had already begun to introduce turbojet-powered aircraft into airline service. In contrast, the new largecapacity airliners entering flight test in the Soviet Union in those days were predominantly powered by turboprops. For the two decades that followed, the USSR became a veritable 'wildlife refuge' for turboprop passenger aircraft. And fine aircraft they were! There was the Antonov An-1 0 Cat - the world's only four-turboprop airliner to utilise a high-wing layout; there was...