DK - Dinosaurs Eye to Eye 2010

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Story Transcript


DINOSAURS

EYE TO EYE Zoom in on the world’s most

incredible dinosaurs

Zoom in on the world’s most incredible dinosaurs

(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

LONDON, NEW YORK, MUNICH, MELBOURNE, AND DELHI Senior editor Shaila Brown Senior art editor Philip Letsu Art editor Johnny Pau Managing editor Linda Esposito Managing art editor Diane Thistlethwaite Publishing manager Andrew Macintyre Category publisher Laura Buller Picture researcher Myriam Megharbi DK picture library Emma Shepherd Cartographer Ed Merrit Creative technical support Peter Pawsey Production editor Melissa Latorre Production controller Charlotte Oliver Jacket editor Joanna Pocock Jacket designer Laura Brim Jacket manager Sophia M. Tampakopoulos Turner Creative retouching Steve Willis

Consultant Dr. Darren Naish

First published in the United States in 2010 by DK Publishing Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 A Penguin Company Copyright © 2010 Dorling Kindersley Limited 09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 DD532— 01/10 All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums, fundraising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 [email protected] A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 978-0-7566-5760-4 Color reproduction by MDP, United Kingdom Printed by Star Standard, Singapore

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(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

Zoom in on the world’s most incredible dinosaurs

Author

John Woodward Digital Sculptor

Peter Minister

(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

Contents Dinosaur timeline What is a dinosaur? Types of dinosaurs

6 8 10

TRIASSIC WORLD Nothosaurus Eoraptor Coelophysis Warm-blooded reptiles Plateosaurus Shonisaurus Eudimorphodon Isanosaurus

12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

JURASSIC WORLD Lesothosaurus Rhomaleosaurus

30 32 34

Teeth and diet Heterodontosaurus Cryolophosaurus Scelidosaurus Barosaurus Plates and spines Stegosaurus Allosaurus Pterodactylus Dinosaurs and birds Archaeopteryx Compsognathus

36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58

CRETACEOUS WORLD Sauropelta Deinonychus Tenontosaurus

60 62 64 66

Spinosaurus Scales and feathers Citipati Therizinosaurus Crests and colors Parasaurolophus Triceratops Pachycephalosaurus Eggs and young Saltasaurus Quetzalcoatlus Edmontosaurus Tyrannosaurus

68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92

Glossary Index Credits

94 96 96

Fast Facts: the length or wingspan of each prehistoric animal is indicated in comparison to human dimensions – 6 ft (1.8 m).

6

Dinosaur timeline The age of dinosaurs began some 230 million years ago, near the beginning of the Mesozoic era. Dinosaurs went on to dominate life on Earth for 165 million years—a vast span of time that permitted the evolution of a dazzling variety of species. They were fantastically successful animals, and many were among the biggest and most spectacular creatures that have ever existed. Until recently, we thought they were all extinct—wiped out by some catastrophe 65 million years ago, and surviving only as fossils. Yet we now realize that one group of dinosaurs—birds—still flourishes, so the age of dinosaurs has not ended. We live in it.

Acanthostega was one of the first amphibians.

Ancestors The earliest land vertebrates appeared roughly 370 million years ago. They were amphibians, which have to live and breed in or near water. Within 80 million years some developed waterproof skins that enabled them to live in dry places. These early reptiles were the ancestors of dinosaurs.

Contemporaries When dinosaurs appeared in the Triassic period, they were greatly outnumbered by other reptiles known as the crurotarsans. These included powerful animals like Postosuchus—a massive-jawed predator that may have preyed on early dinosaurs. During the Mesozoic era, dinosaurs lived alongside flying pterosaurs, marine reptiles, lizards, tortoises, and early mammals.

MESOZOIC

ERA PERIOD

Jurassic

(c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

145

199

251

MILLIONS OF YEARS AGO (MYA)

Triassic

7 The body is reduced to a skeleton, which is buried in soft, airless mud.

A dinosaur is chased into a river, where it sinks and drowns.

Over millions of years the mud hardens into rock, and the bones become stony fossils.

Much later, a new stream cuts down through the rock and exposes the fossils.

Fossilization We know about dinosaurs only because parts of their bodies have survived as fossils. These are the remains of living things that have somehow escaped the normal process of decay. They have usually been turned to stone by minerals replacing the once-living tissue.

Discovery Most dinosaur fossils consist of bones and teeth, which fossilize well because they survive decay long enough to be buried in sediments that turn to rock. But other fossils include skin, feathers, and even a last meal! When such fossils are exposed by erosion, they often have to be chipped out of the rock. Small skeletons are left attached to the slab, but bigger bones, like the ones shown here, are carefully removed when their positions have been fully and accurately recorded. Catastrophe The Mesozoic era ended 65 million years ago in a mass extinction that wiped out many types of animals and plants. Scientists are not sure what caused this catastrophe. An asteroid impact in what is now Mexico may have caused a huge explosion followed by years of acid rain and climate chaos. Massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India may have had a similar effect. Either way, the disaster eliminated all dinosaurs except birds. Other reptiles also survived, as did amphibians and mammals.

Reconstruction Once the bones are conserved, they can be used to make lightweight copies for assembly into mounted skeletons. This worker is welding a steel framework for a Barosaurus. The bones reveal a lot about the animal, enabling scientists to reconstruct its likely appearance when alive. Timeline The Mesozoic era consisted of the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods. This age of giant dinosaurs lasted much longer than the Cenozoic era that followed, and 40 times as long as anything resembling humanity, which appeared near the end of the Neogene period.

CENOZOIC Cretaceous

Paleogene

0

23

65 (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

Neogene

8

What is a dinosaur? We often think of dinosaurs as huge land-living reptiles that vanished off the face of Earth many millions of years ago. Yet while some dinosaurs were certainly giants, others were relatively small, nimble creatures. One group even took to the air, and they still survive as birds. So our old image of dinosaurs as lumbering prehistoric monsters has dramatically changed. They were not like most of the cold-blooded reptiles we know today, but dynamic, probably warm-blooded creatures with distinctive anatomical features. The same could be said for the closely related pterosaurs that flew in the Mesozoic skies and evolved into the most spectacular flying animals of all time.

Fish

Reptiles with a difference Dinosaurs were reptiles—part of a group that includes tortoises, crocodiles, and lizards. All of these animals evolved from a shared ancestor that was almost certainly cold-blooded and scaly, like this lizard. But Mesozoic dinosaurs were probably warm-blooded, and many had feathers like modern birds. They were reptiles, but reptiles with a difference.

TE

Amphibians

TR

O AP

Synapsids (mammals and relatives)

DS

Turtles and tortoises Ichthyosaurs (fishlike reptiles)

RE

IL PT

ES Plesiosaurs (marine reptiles)

AR

Vertebrate evolution All vertebrate animals are RS AU descended from S O the same distant CH ancestors. The first to evolve were fish, followed by four-legged land animals (tetrapods). The earliest of these were amphibians, followed by mammal ancestors and reptiles, which included the marine reptiles of the Mesozoic. One reptile group known as archosaurs evolved into crurotarsans (which include crocodiles), pterosaurs, and dinosaurs.

Lizards and snakes Crurotarsans (crocodiles and relatives) Pterosaurs (flying reptiles)

Dinosaurs (c) 2011 Dorling Kindersley. All Rights Reserved.

9 Archosaurs This Nile crocodile is one of the largest surviving archosaurs—a group of animals that included pterosaurs and dinosaurs, as well as modern birds. Archosaurs are defined by a distinctive cavity in the skull on each side of the snout between the eye and nostril. In all other ways they can be very different, since the group includes creatures as diverse as tiny sparrows, fearsome cold-blooded crocodiles, and—in the past—giant tyrannosaurs.

This Iguanodon’s upright posture is unlike the sprawling gait of a crocodile.

Dinosaurs When a crocodile wants to move fast, it swings its legs beneath its body in order to raise it off the ground. During the Triassic, a group of archosaurs started walking like this all the time, so their legs supported their body weight. They became dinosaurs. Their posture made them more agile, and many walked on two legs. Their active lifestyle encouraged the evolution of warm-bloodedness, insulating feathers, and possibly fur.

Dinosaurs had hips and knees a lot like ours, but they walked on their toes.

Pterosaurs One early group of archosaurs took to the air: pterosaurs. They had furry bodies and batlike wings made of skin reinforced with stiff fibers and muscles, supported by the bones of a single long finger. They had big flight muscles and fle...

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