THE ILLUSTRATED ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
EDITOR IAL CON SU LTA N T
SA U L DAVI D
THE ILLUSTRATED ENCYCLOPEDIA OF
WARFARE P R EVIOU SLY P U B L I SH ED AS WAR
f r o m
a n c i e n t
e g y p t
i r a q
LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNE, MUNICH, AND DELHI
CONTENTS The Rise of Rome
Roman wars against the Samnites and
DORLING KINDERSLEY Senior Art Editor Gadi Farfour Designers Richard Horsford, Dean Morris Elizabeth O’Neill, Amy Orsborne Cartography Encompass Graphics Ltd, Paul Eames, Simon Mumford, David Roberts Picture Research Sarah and Roland Smithies Creative Retouching Miranda Benzies Creative Technical Support Adam Brackenbury, John Goldsmid Managing Art Editor Karen Self Art Director Bryn Walls
Senior Editor Alison Sturgeon Project Editors Tarda Davison-Aitkins Ferdie McDonald, Andrew Szudek Editor Patrick Newman Editorial Assistant Manisha Thakkar Production Editor Tony Phipps Production Controller Rita Sinha Managing Editors Camilla Hallinan and Debra Wolter US Editor Chuck Wills Associate Publisher Liz Wheeler Reference Publisher Jonathan Metcalf
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Senior Editor Hannah Bowen Editors Natasha Kahn, Donald Sommerville Anna Southgate Managing Director Ellen Dupont
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Managing Editor James Bennett Editors Jacqueline Jackson, Cécile Landau Anne McDowall, Constance Novis Publishing Manager Charles Catton
EDITORIAL CONSULTANT Saul David
CONSULTANTS Lindsay Allen, Roger Collins, Adrian Gilbert (Directory), Richard Overy, David Parrott, Brendan Simms
CONTRIBUTORS R. G. Grant with Simon Adams and Michael Kerrigan
DIRECTORY CONTRIBUTORS Martin J. Dougherty, Michael E. Haskew, Hunter Keeter, Chris McNab, David Porter, Robert S. Rice
PHOTOGRAPHY Gary Ombler, Graham Rae First American Edition published as War in 2009 This edition published in 2012 in the United States by DK Publishing 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 003-188500-April/12 Copyright © 2009, 2012 Dorling Kindersley Limited All rights reserved Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited. A CIP catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-0-7566-9548-4 Printed and bound in China by Toppan (Shenzhen) Discover more at
the Greek king Pyrrhus establish Roman domination of Italy by the 3rd century BCE.
The Punic Wars
Rome’s ﬁrst ventures overseas. The titanic clashes between Rome and Carthage for control of the western Mediterranean.
WAR IN THE ANCIENT WORLD
The Gallic Wars
Julius Caesar’s successful—and proﬁtable— campaigns in Gaul and his two military
3000 BCE—500 CE
expeditions to Britain.
Introduction and timeline
■ ASPECTS OF WAR: ENGINEERING
Wars in Sumer and Egypt
Roman Civil War
The earliest recorded wars are fought in
Rome is riven by power struggles between rival
Mesopotamia. The great empire of Sargon of
generals, notably the civil wars between Caesar
Akkade. The conquests of the Egyptian pharaohs.
and Pompey, then Octavian and Antony. Octavian emerges as victor and emperor.
The empire created by the Assyrians stretches
■ WITNESS TO WAR:
as far as Egypt. It falls to the Babylonians, who
A DISTANT POSTING
in turn are conquered by Achaemenid Persia.
The Roman Empire The Greco-Persian Wars
In the 1st and 2nd centuries CE the Roman
In the 5th century BCE, the Persian empire
empire enjoys political stability, but wars
makes two attempts to conquer Greece. The
continue, especially along its eastern borders.
Greek city-states unite to thwart the invasions.
The Late Roman Empire The Peloponnesian War
The wars that lead to the fall of the Roman
Complex conﬂict between Athens and its allies
empire in the West. Incursions by Huns,
and the Spartan-led Peloponnesian League.
Goths, and Vandals.
The defeat of Athens and its eclipse as the
The Warring States Period
dominant power in Greece.
Rival feudal states vie for domination of China.
Conquests of Alexander
The spectacular campaigns of Alexander the
In the 3rd century BCE victory goes to the “First Emperor” Qin Shi Huangdi.
Great of Macedon. He subdues opposition in Greece, then carves out a vast empire stretching
The Three Kingdoms
from Egypt to northern India.
Fragmentation of China in the 3rd century CE
following the collapse of the Han dynasty.
■ KEY BATTLE: ISSUS
■ GALLERY: HELMETS
The wars between Alexander’s generals to
The Mauryan Empire
decide who will inherit his empire. The spoils
Chandragupta founds a north Indian empire.
are divided between three major dynasties.
His descendant Ashoka renounces war.
O WITNESS TO WAR:
O GALLERY: SWORDS
WAR IN THE MEDIEVAL WORLD 500—1500
are thwarted by the Korean navy under Yi Sun-sin.
The terminal decline of the Byzantium,
The power struggle between the Minamoto
successor to the Roman empire. The fall of
O WITNESS TO WAR:
and Taira clans in 12th-century Japan.
Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Japan’s attempts to invade Korea in the 1590s
The End of the Byzantine Empire Japan’s Gempei Wars
Korea Resists Invasion
The vast empire created by Genghis Khan and
Fall of the Ming dynasty and conquest of China
his successors. Settled city-dwellers have no
by Manchu from the north in the 17th century.
answer to the fast-moving Mongol horsemen.
French Wars of Religion The Wars of Kublai Khan 56
The civil war between French Protestants and
Genghis Khan’s grandson completes the
Catholics, sustained by political power struggles.
conquest of China, founding the Yuan dynasty.
Introduction and timeline The Rise of Byzantium
The Dutch Revolt
Further attempts at expansion end in failure.
The Conquests of Timur
The reconquest of North Africa and Italy under
The conquests and short-lived empire of
Justinian in the 6th century and the victories
Timur, the self-styled “Scourge of God.”
of Heraclius over the Sasanid Persians.
Guelphs and Ghibellines The Ascent of Islam
and 13th centuries, from the wars of Frederick
the ﬁrst century after the founding of Islam.
Barbarossa to the War of the Sicilian Vespers.
O ASPECTS OF WAR:
and the rise of the Carolingian dynasty.
Crusades in Europe Viking Raids and the Norman Conquest
The voyages and raids of the Scandinavian
The Rise of the Turks
The First Crusades The capture of Jerusalem in 1099 and the
called oﬀ following defeat of the Armada.
The Italian Wars
The Thirty Years War
Naval battles between England and Spain in the
French invasions of Italy lead to a personal
Multi-sided conﬂict rooted in religious diﬀerences
struggle between Francis I of France and
and opposition to Habsburg domination. The
Emperor Charles V for dominance in Europe.
ﬁghting devastates Germany and Central Europe.
O KEY BATTLE: FIRST BREITENFELD
Spain gains a vast empire through its defeats
The British Civil Wars
of the Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru.
Parliamentarians defeat Royalist supporters
of Charles I in England, Scotland, and Ireland.
Confused conﬂict in which Scotland managed
to assert its independence from England in
The initial conquests of Babur, followed by the
The Anglo-Dutch Wars
the 14th century.
tireless campaigns of Akbar, establish Mogul
Three naval wars are fought for control of
rule across most of India.
shipping and trade through the English Channel.
The long series of wars in Spain and Portugal
that ﬁnally drove out the Muslim rulers
Further Ottoman conquests under Suleiman
A series of expansionist wars fought by France,
from the Iberian Peninsula in 1492.
the Magniﬁcent and his heirs. Expansion is
chieﬂy on the country’s eastern borders.
foundation of the crusader kingdoms.
The Early Wars of Louis XIV
ﬁnally halted in the late 17th century.
O KEY BATTLE: CRÉCY Expulsion of the Crusaders from the Holy Land
Introduction and timeline
against the pagan peoples of the Baltic region.
The Spanish Reconquista 74
Spanish Conquests in the New World
rulers assert their independence, in particular the Ghaznavids and the Seljuks.
The Anglo-Spanish War
in France and the Hussites in Bohemia—and
Crusades against heretics—the Albigensians
The Turkish tribal warriors employed by Islamic
The rapid rise of Dutch sea power.
Vikings from the 8th century and the rise of the Normans as a major European power.
for 80 years to win independence from Spain.
late 16th century. A Spanish invasion attempt is
Battles of Charles Martel, Pepin, and Charlemagne,
EARLY MODERN WARFARE
The struggles for control of Italy in the 12th
The great wave of conquests by the Arabs in
The United Provinces of the Netherlands ﬁght
The Hundred Years War
The War of the Spanish Succession
O KEY BATTLE: LEPANTO
Dynastic accident threatens to give Louis XIV control of Spain. A powerful alliance of other
Loss of Jerusalem to Saladin. Later crusades fail
Sporadic outbreaks of war in the 14th and
Wars of the Sengoku Era
to win back lost te...