Forbidden Archeology - The Hidden History of the Human Race

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Story Transcript


Rest in Peace to Aaron Swartz beloved friend of the internet, defender for freedom of speech and information, May your struggle not be in vain, the earth is 4.5 billion years, mankind has been around 160,000 yrs and the average span of an individual is just 70, but the idea of free universal knowledge can never die.

Reader’s Summary (for inner circle study only)

“Forbidden Archeology” The Hidden History of the Human Race Go To Contents

Go To Appendices

The Book - Forbidden Archeology First Edition 1993, revised 1996, 1998

ISBN 0-89213-294-9

Printed in India at Indira Printers, New Delhi-110 020 Dust Cover - Front

Dust Cover- Back

By Michael A Cremo and Richard L Thompson

Dedicated to His Divine Grace C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

Back To Front Page

Contents Foreword Introduction and Acknowledgments Page Part 1: Anomalous evidence 1. The song of he Red Lion

3

Geological Eras and Periods

2. Incised and Broken Bones: The Dawn of Deception Halitherium of Pouance, France

27

Carved Shell From the Red Crag, English

Stratigraphy of East Anglia

3. Eoliths

85

4. Crude Paleolithic Stone Tools

213

5. Advanced Paleoliths and Neoliths

291

The Sling Stone from Bramford, English

How Lee was treated

Hueyatlaco, Mexico

The Neale Discoveries

The King Pestle

Sheguiandah: Archeology as a Vendetta

Sandia Cave, New Mexico

6. Anomalous Human Skeletal Remains A Human Skull from the Early Pleistocene at Buenos Aires

Human Skeletons from Castenedolo, Italy

395 The Foxhall Jaw

Part II: Accepted Evidence 7. Java Man

461

8. The Piltdown Showdown (proved to be false)

501

9. Peking Man and Other Finds in China

527

10. Living Ape-Men?

591

11. Always Something New Out of Africa

627

Go To Appendices Back To Front Page

Appendices A1. Chemical and Radiometric Test of Anomalous Human Skeletal Remains

753

Principles of Carbon 14 Dating

A2. Evidence for Advanced Culture in Distant Ages Letters In Marble Block, Philadelphia

A Tertiary Chalk Ball From Laon, France.

Objects From Illinois Well Borings

A Clay Image From Nampa, Idaho

A shoe Sole From Nevada

Metallic Tubes from Chalk in France

Shoe Print in Shale from Utah

Grooved Sphere from South Africa

795

A3. Summary of Anomalous Evidence Related to Human Antiquity

815

TABLE A3.1 General Summary Precambrian

Cambrian

Devonian

Triassic

Cretaceous

Early Miocene

Middle Miocene

Early Pleistocene

Middle Pleistocene Late Pleistocene

Eocene

Carboniferous

Oligocene

Late Miocene

Pliocene

TABLE A3.2 North and South America Only Middle Pleistocene

827

Late Pleistocene

List of Tables

861

List of Illustrations

863

Index

873

Back To Contents

Foreword

I perceive in Forbidden Archeology an important work of' thoroughgoing scholarship and intellectual adventure. Forbidden Archeology ascends and descends into the realms of the human construction of scientific "fact" and theory: postmortem territories that historians, philosophers, and sociologists of scientific knowledge are investigating with increasing frequency. Recent studies of the emergence of Western scientific knowledge accentuate that "credible" knowledge is situated at an intersection between physical locales and social distinctions. Historical, sociological, and ethnomethodological studies of science by scholars such as Harry Collins, Michael Mulkay, Steven Shapin, Thomas Kuhn, Harold Garfinkel, Michael Lynch, Steve Woolgar, Andrew Pickering, Bruno Latour, Karin Knorr-Cetina, Donna Haraway, Allucquere Stone, and Malcolm Ashmore all point to the observation that scientific disciplines, be they paleoanthropology or astronomy, "manufacture knowledge" through locally constructed representational systems and practical devices for making their discovered phenomenon visible, accountable, and consensual to a larger disciplinary body of tradition. As Michael Lynch reminds us, "scientists construct and use instruments, modify specimen materials, write articles, make pictures and build organizations." With exacting research into the history of anthropological discovery, Cremo and Thompson zoom in on the epistemological crisis of the human fossil record, the process of disciplinary suppression, and the situated scientific handling of "anomalous evidence" to build persuasive theory and local institutions of knowledge and power. In Cremo and Thompson's words, archeological and paleoanthropological "'facts' turn out to be networks of arguments and observational claims" that assemble a discipline's "truth" regardless, at times, of whether there is any agreed upon connection to the physical evidence or to the actual work done at the physical site of discovery. This perspective, albeit radical, accords with what I see as the best of the new work being done in studies of scientific knowledge.

Forbidden Archeology does not conceal its own positioning on a relativist spectrum of knowledge production. The authors admit to their own sense of place in a knowledge universe with contours derived from personal experience with Vedic philosophy, religious perception, and Indian cosmology. Their intriguing discourse on the "Evidence for Advanced Culture in Distant Ages" is light-years from “normal” Western science, and yet provokes a cohesion of probative thought. In my view, it is just this openness of subjective positioning that makes Forbidden Archeology an original and important contribution to postmodern scholarly studies now being done in sociology, anthropology, archeology, and the history of science and ideas. The authors' unique perspective provides postmodern scholars with an invaluable parallax view of historical scientific praxis, debate, and development.

Pierce J. Flynn, Ph.D. Department of Arts and Sciences California State University, San Marcos, Calif., U.S.A.

xix

Back To Contents

Back To Contents

Introduction and Acknowledgments In 1979, researchers at the Laetoli, Tanzania, site in East Africa discovered footprints in volcanic ash deposits over 3.6 million years old. Mary Leakey and others said the prints were indistinguishable from those of modem humans. To these scientists, this meant only that the human ancestors of 3.6 million years ago had remarkably modem feet. But according to other scientists, such as physical anthropologist R. H. Tuttle of the University of Chicago, fossil bones of the known australopithecines of 3.6 million years ago show they had feet that were distinctly apelike. Hence they were incompatible with the Laetoli prints. In an article in the March 1990 issue of Natural History, Tuttle confessed that "we are left with somewhat of a mystery." It seems permissible, therefore, to consider a possibility neither Tuttle nor Leakey mentioned-that creatures with anatomically modem human bodies to match their anatomically modem human feet existed some 3.6 million years ago in East Africa. Perhaps, as suggested in the illustration on the opposite page, they coexisted with more apelike creatures. As intriguing as this archeological possibility may be, current ideas about human evolution forbid it. Knowledgeable persons will warm against positing the existence of anatomically modem humans millions of years ago on the slim basis of the Laetoli footprints. But there is further evidence. Over the past few decades, scientists in Africa have uncovered fossil bones that look remarkably human. In 1965, Bryan Patterson and W. W Howells found a surprisingly modem humerus (upper arm bone) at Kanapoi, Kenya. Scientists judged the humerus to be over 4 million years old. Henry M. McHenry and Robert S. Corruccini of the University of California said the Kanapoi humerus was "barely distinguishable from modem Homo." Similarly, Richard Leakey said the ER 1481 femur (thighbone) from Lake Turkana, Kenya, found in 1972, was indistinguishable from that of modem humans. Scientists normally assign the ER 1481 femur, which is about 2 million years old, to prehuman Homo habilis. But since the ER 1481 femur was found by itself, one cannot rule out the possibility that the rest of the skeleton was also anatomically modem. Interestingly enough, in 1913 the German scientist Hans Reck found at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, a complete anatomically modem human skeleton in strata over I million years old, inspiring decades of controversy.

Here again, some will caution us not to set a few isolated and controversial examples against the overwhelming amount of noncontroversial evidence showing that anatomically modem humans evolved from more apelike creatures fairly recently-about 100,000 years ago, in Africa, and, in the view of some, in other parts of the world as well. But it turns out we have not exhausted our resources with the Laetoli footprints, the Kanapoi humerus, and the ER 1481 femur. Over the past eight years, Richard Thompson and I, with the assistance of our researcher Stephen Bernath, have amassed an extensive body of evidence that calls into question current theories of human evolution. Some of this evidence, like the Laetoli footprints, is fairly recent. But much of it was reported by scientists in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. And as you can see, our discussion of this evidence fills up quite a large book. Without even looking at this older body of evidence, some will assume that there must be something wrong with it-that it was properly disposed of by scientists long ago, for very good reasons. Richard and I have looked rather deeply into that possibility. We have concluded, however, that the quality of this controversial evidence is no better or worse than the supposedly noncontroversial evidence usually cited in favor of current views about human evolution. But Forbidden Archeology is more than a well-documented catalog of unusual facts. It is also a sociological, philosophical, and historical critique of the scientific method, as applied to the question of human origins and antiquity. We are not sociologists, but our approach in some ways resembles that taken by...

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