How Electronic Things Work And What To DoWhen They Dont

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HOW ELECTRONIC THINGS WORK . . . AND WHAT TO DO WHEN THEY DON’T

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HOW ELECTRONIC THINGS WORK . . . AND WHAT TO DO WHEN THEY DON’T ROBERT L. GOODMAN

Second Edition

McGraw-Hill New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-HIll Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-142924-7 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-138745-5.

All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at [email protected] or (212) 904-4069.

TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS”. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071429247

Dedication This book is dedicated to my brother, Bill, for giving me the idea to write this kind of book.

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CONTENTS AT A GLANCE Detailed Contents Preface Acknowledgments Introduction

1 Introduction to very basic electronics “101” 2 Radio/audio/stereo/speakers/music systems and cassette player operations 3 Audio/video and CD player operation 4 How color TVs, digital HDTV receivers, and PC monitors work 5 Flat panel monitor/large screen projection set and HDTV digital TV system operation 6 Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) system operation 7 How video cameras and camcorders work 8 Wired telephones, cordless phones, answering machines, and cellular phone systems 9 How remote-control systems work 10 Printers, copiers, and fax machine operations 11 Digital video disc (DVD) system operation 12 General electronics and and maintenance information Glossary Index

ix xv xvii xix

1 49 91 115 161 195 227 259 311 329 363 381 391 415

vii

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DETAILED CONTENTS Chapter 1 Introduction to very basic electronics “101” How resistors work ● Reading resistor color codes ● Resistor problems ● Electronic circuit-protection devices (fuses) ● How capacitors work ● Tips for locating faulty capacitors ● Transformer and coil operations ● Transformer troubles and checks ● Transistors, ICs, and diodes ● How transistors and solid-state devices work ● Solid-state scope sweep checker ● Electronic power supplies ● Electronic circuit soldering techniques ● Surface-mounted devices and their soldering techniques ● Electronic test meters (VOMs) ● Tools for electronic circuit repairs ● Some electronic service repair tips ● Intermittent temperature problems ● Noisy ICs or transistors ● Testing equipment that intermittently blows fuses ● Power supply trouble repair tips ● Digital circuit power supplies

Chapter 2 Radio/audio/stereo/speakers/music systems and cassette player operations Broadcast radio transmitter operation ● FM/AM radio receiver operation ● Radio circuit operation ● IF amplifiers ● Ratio detector operation ● Composite amplifier function ● Biplex detector operation ● Dolby recording technique ● Audio recording ● How a Dolby recording is produced ● Tips for making your audio sound better ● Stereo speaker placement ● FM radio antennas ● Receiver trouble checks and tips ● Intermittent receiver problems ● Some receiver service don’ts ● Loudspeaker concepts and precautions ● How tuned-port speaker systems work ● Bose Acoustic Wave speaker system ● Bose series III music system ● Bose Lifestyle 901 system ● Bose home theater system ● Cassette player operation and maintenance ● Cassette tape recorder circuit operation ● Tape player electronics ● Cassette belt and rubber pulley drive systems ● Fast forward not working ● Tape will not rewind properly ● Demagnetize the tape heads ● Tape head cleaning and maintenance ● Operation of the Trackmate cleaning cassette ● Audio cassette problems, solutions, and corrections ● No tape movement or sound ● Sluggish tape rewind ● No fast forward action ● Auto shut-off not working ● Checking the belt drives ● Notes on cassette switch problems ● Unit will not load cassette cartridge ● Cassette recorder blows fuses ● Deck shuts down after a few seconds ● A smoking cassette unit ● Noise problems ● Rewind and fast-forward problems ● Erratic tape speed ● Poor recordings ● Cassette tape recorder problems

Chapter 3 Audio/video and CD player operation How CD and laserdisc players work ● Skip, search, and scan operation ● How the laserdisc is made ● Signal (pit) detection scheme ● Optical pickup and detection via the pit signal ● The laserdisc pits ● Types of CDs ● How the pickup carriage functions ● How the mechanical subchassis works ● Mechanical tray operations ● Pickup carriage operation ● Tray operation ● Notes on spindle operation ● Pickup ix

X CONTENTS

lens cleaning of the laserdisc player ● DVD discs ● DVD technology ● Laser light and laser diode information ● Typical CD player ● Power supply ● Optical deck ● Electronics PC board ● Disc motor ● Spindle platform table ● Sled mechanism ● Pickup motor ● Disc clamper ● Optical pickup unit ● CD player problems and solutions ● Dead CD player ● Command operation failure ● Drawer will not open or close ● Unpredictable drawer operation ● Drawer will not close properly ● Various intermittent operation modes ● Problems develop after unit heats up ● CD player audio problems ● A review of common CD player problems ● Checking and cleaning the laser player ● CD player will not operate (start-up) ● The CD sequence start-up routine ● Notes on CD readout failures ● CD skipping problems ● CD noise problems ● Optical-pickup sled comments

Chapter 4 How color TVs, digital HDTV receivers, and PC monitors work The color TV signal ● Color TV signal standards ● Color TV receiver operation ● The tuner section ● IF and video stages ● Video detector ● Video amplifiers ● Luma delay line ● Chroma processing circuits ● Chroma and luminance stages ● Color-killer circuit operation ● Sandcastle circuit operation ● Functions of the sync circuits ● Vertical sweep deflection operation ● Horizontal sweep deflection operation ● Sound converter stage operation ● Sound IF amplifier operation ● Audio detector ● Audio amplifier stage ● TV power-supply operation ● Sweep circuits and picture tube operations ● Loss of the vertical raster ● Troubleshooting horizontal sync troubles ● Deflection yoke problems ● Key voltage readings ● Inoperative computer monitor problem ● Testing sweep high-voltage transformers ● More monitor problems ● Checking out the high-voltage diode multipliers ● High voltage problems ● Horizontal oscillator, driver, and output stage problems ● TV start-up problem ● Measuring the TV set high voltage ● Blurred, out-of-focus picture symptom ● Switching transformer checks ● Vertical sweep section operation ● How the vertical drive signal is developed ● Vertical picture-tube scanning ● How the color picture (CRT) works ● CRT electron gun operation ● In-line CRT gun assembly ● Large-screen projection TV operation ● Light path of a projection TV set ● Liquid-cooled projection tubes ● Optical CRT coupling ● Self-convergence design ● Picture brightness and the projection screen ● A list of TV receiver problems and solutions ● Digital/HDTV operation and review ● HDTV picture quality ● Set-Top converter box ● Digital video formats ● Digit...

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