Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle

The Authors Yefi m Gordon is a Russian aviation writer and photographer. He has studied Russian (and Soviet) - pdf za darmo

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Story Transcript


The Author s Yefi m Gordon is a Ru ss ian avia tion wri ter a nd photograp her . He has stu di ed Russ ia n (and Sovie t) avia tion history for th e last th irty yea rs . His pr ev ious books include Soviet X-Planes, MiG- i S, MiG-2S, Yakoleo Aircraft, a nd Ai rlife have recently published MiG-29 a nd Su-27. He lives in Moscow. Dm it ri y Komi ssa ro v is a pr ofessi on al av ia tion tra nsl at or a nd a n ed itor worki ng for Polygon Press Ltd . He has stud ied Ru ss ia n (and Sovie t) av iation hi st ory for th e last ten yea rs. His previous book s include Ilyushin 11-76 (Russ ia n and English language ed itions) a nd Mil Mi-24 Hind Attack Helicopter. He ha s also tran slat ed into En glish most of th e book s wri tten by Yefim Gordo n. He lives in Moscow.

Relat ed titl es published b )' Airlife Mil Mi -24 Hind Attack Helicop ter by Yefi m Gordon & Dmitriy Komi ssarov

Sukhoi Su-27 Flanker Air Superiority Fight er by Ye fim Gord on Mikoya n MiG-29 Fulcrum M ulti-role Fighter by Yefim Gord on Monin o - The Russian Ai r Force Mu seum by Co lin W. Prenti ce

n~hinn-28 Beagle

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LIGHT ATTACI{ BOMBER

Yefim Gordon and Ihnitriy Komissarov

Airlife

Co pyright
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British Libra ry Cataloguing-in-Puhlica tion Data

A cata logue record for thi s book is available from the British Library ISB N I 84037 351 2 All rights reserved. No part of th is book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic o r mechanical including photocopying. recording or by any informati on storage and retrieval system. without permission from the Publisher in writing. This book contai ns rare. early colour photographs and the Publisher has made every endeavour to reproduce them to the highest quality. Some. however. have been technica lly impossible to reproduce to th e standard that we no rma lly demand. but have been included beca use of their rarity and interest value. Typeset by Rowland Phototypesetting Limited. Bury St Edmunds. Suffolk Printed in Hong Kong

Contact lis/ or a fre e catalogue that describes the complete rang!! of A irlife books/or pilots and aviationenthusiasts.

A i r lif e Publishing Ltd 101 Longden Road. Shrewsbury SY3 9EB. England E-mail: sa [email protected] irlifebooks.com Website: www.airlifebooks.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The a uthors wish to express their gratitude to N igel Eastway of the Russian Aviatio n Research Trust (RA RT), who, as usual, provided assistance with photos from his extensive a rchive; to Sergey Komissarov who also supplied several previously unpublished photos; to And rey Yurgenson fo r the line drawings and Sergey Yershov for the excellent colour side views.

CONTENTS

Introduction

9

1 Breeding the Beagle 2 The Il-28 Family 3 The Beagle in Service 4 Beagles World-wide 5 The Il-28 in Detail Appendix I Acronyms and Glossary Appendix II Detail Plans

126 129

Index

142

11 ??

-73

92 11 8







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The fa mo us Soviet airc ra ft designer Sergey Vladim irov ich Ilyu shin . the fo under o f OKB-240 a nd th e creato r of many o utsta nding includin g the 11-28 tacti cal bomber. ( SlT~' .aircra . . ft .- . ... . '''. <11/.1 Dmitrtv. Komissan» r arch!.... )

I NTRODU CTION

ike the o ther Allied nations. the Soviet U nio n was very active designing new types of _ weapons a nd military technol ogi es in the early years after the Second World War. The advent of the turbojet engine a ffected fir st and foremost figh ter design. Jet fight ers enjoyed top pri ority. while jet bombers were in effect relegated to second place. a ltho ug h the turbojet inevitably found its way to bombers as well. Having examined German war booty aircraft and the state of Nazi Germa ny's aero na utica l research, U S. British a nd Soviet aircra ft designers reached the sa me conclusion : ind izeno us jet design s were needed . Research in this field event ua lly led to ma sterpieces o f aviation engineering, such as the Nort h A merica n F -86 Sabre a nd Mikoyan/G urevich Mi G-IS (NAT O code name Fagot ) fighters. the English Electric Ca nber ra bomber a nd. so me time later. the Boeing B-52 Stratofo rtress. Tupolev Tu-1 6 Badger and Tu-95 Bear heavy bombers. (T he latter is admitted ly a turbopro p a irc ra ft: however. turboprops are gas turbine engines as well. so the Tu-95 deserves mention. too. ) The well-k nown Sov iet Ilyushin 11-28 tactical bomber ca n a lso be re garded as a n extrao rd inarv aircraft. Few jet fighte rs of the time could keep up with the 11-28 in terms of production. Accord ing to contem po ra ry Soviet military strateav, co nven tiona l a nd nuclear strikes again st target s ~

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in t he enemy's tactical area we re to be made by tactical (i.e. light) bombers. Development wo rk o n jet tactical bombers in the U SSR was probably kicked o lT in 1945 by the design bureau led by A rkhip Mikha ilovich Lyulka which was then working on the 1.300 kgp (2. 865 Ib sn TR-I ax ial-now tu rbojet - the first indigenous jet engine to reach the hardware stage. (Pre-war projects devel oped by Lyulka re ma ined paper engines. The o nly o ther jet s ava ilable to Soviet aircraft designers at the time were reve rse-e ngineered versio ns o f the German turbojets - the BM W 003 and Jun kers ./umo 004.) Jet bombers were under development at O K B156 1ed by Andrey N iko layevich Tupolev. O K B-240 led by Sergey Vl adimirovich Ilyushin a nd O K B-51 led by Pavel O sipovich Sukhoi . Eve n OKB-l led by the G erman wa r booty designer Brunolf W. Baade j oined the race. ' Ea rl y stud ies by Ilyushin in this direction resulted in the 11-22 (the first aircraft to carry thi s designatio n),' the first Soviet fo ur-jet bomber. It had a circula r-section fuselage, sho ulde r-mo unted stra ight wings, a conventional tail unit. a tricycle landing ~

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I O K B = opvtno-k onstrook torskoyc hY1l1"O - experimental design bureau . T he number is a code allocated lor securit •v rea son s. 1 T he designation was reused much later lor a purpose-built airborne command post version o f the II -I SD turboprop airliner (NATO code na me Cool: the 11-2 ' was code-named COOl-C) .

The 11-..,.., was th e Ilyushin O K B's first jet bomber. Though not a successful design . lessons learn ed wi th it acco unted in a la rue for the success of the 11-"'8. ( S " ' W .... degree ..... . -I' <1".1 Dmitri.v Komissan» archiv« j

10'

ILY USHI N I L-2 8 B EAGLE

The experimental 'aircraft 71' (Tu-12) bomber which was a stra ightforward development of the Second World Warvintace Tu-2 . ( reti", Gordon archivc)

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wit h a twin -whee l nose unit and larue zle c- sin cmainwhee ls. T he TsAG I ' l-A-1O aero foil was utilized on the inner win gs a nd the TsAG I 1-V- I0 aerofo il on the o uter wings. with a 12 per cent thickness-to-chord ratio in bo th cases. The four T R-I turbojets were carried almost en tirely a head of the wing leading edge on short horizont al pylons; this was a first in world jet aircraft design . All the bombs were to be carried internallv, a nd the largest weapon carried by the 11-22 was a 3.000 kg (6.6 13 lb ) bomb. which was a lso the aircraft's maximum ord na nce load. The defen sive arma ment com prised a pai r o f Berezin B-20E 20 mm (.78 ca libre ) ca nnon in a n electrica lly powered rem ote-cont roll ed d orsal barbette and a sin ule 23 mm (.90 ca libre) N udelman/Sooran ov NS-23 cannon in an II-K U- 3 tail turret designed in-house.' Another NS-23 cannon was m ounted o n the sta rboard side of the forward fuselage. ti ring forward . T he five-man crew consisted of two pilots seated side by side in an extensively glazed nose (reminiscen t of the Boeing B-29 Superfort ress ). a navigator/bomb aimer, a gunner/rad io opera tor who worked the do rsal ba rbette. a nd a tail gunner. Accord ing to th e project the 11-22 was to have a range of 1.250 km (776 miles) with a 2.000 kg (4,409 lb ) nom inal bomb load . The maximum takeoff weight was 24.000 kg (52.9 10 lb) a nd the neverexceed speed was set at 800 krn/h (432 kt ). o r M ach 0.75. Development and prototype cons tr uction pro ceeded extremely fas t; piloted by two brothers. Vladimir and Konsta ntin Kokkinaki. the 11-22 made its maiden fl ight o n 24 July 1947. However. tests q uick ly showed that its perform ance was clearly inadeq uate - mainly because the engines. which suffered from teethin g troubles. had to be derated to 940 kgp (2.072 Ib st) . Hence the MTOW had to be limited to 20.000 kg (44.09 1 lb) for the manufacturer's flight tests. The ra nge turned o ut to

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be merely 86 5 krn (53 7 miles) and the top speed at 7.000 m (22.965 ft) was 7 18 krn/h (388 kt) instead of th e req uired 800 km/h. Hence the Ilyush in OK B chose not to submit the aircraft for State acceptance trial s; a ll further development work wa s di scontinued and the so le prototype was relegated to the Bureau o f New Hardware (a division o f the Ministry o f A irc ra ft Industry). where it could be stud ied by leading industry experts. The 11-22 was no more than a stepping sto ne to m ore etTicient design s. Meanwhile. Tupolev came up with the Tu -77 experimental bomber (aka Tu-12). a heavily moditied Second World War-vintage Tu-2 with two turbojets and a tricycle la ndi ng gear. and later the Tu-73/Tu-78/Tu-8 I/Tu-89 famil y. The last aircraft in th e series was eventua lly to see limited production a nd serv ice as th e Tu-14 (NATO code name Bosuns. The German team led bv Baade refined the Junkers EF 131 project which culminated in the Type 140. a n experimenta l bomber with forward-swept wings. Sukhoi built a prot ot ype o f the Su-I O four-j et light bomber. but it wa s scrapped without ever being fl own when OKB-51 was di ssolved in 1949. There wa s yet another contender. Vladimir Mikhail ovich M yasischchev with his VM -24 (aka RB-1 7) fourturbojet bomber...

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