New Vanguard 138 - US Nuclear Submarines - The Fast Attack

US NUCLEAR SUBMARINES: THE FAST ATTACK INTROD UCTION T his book co nstitutes a brief ove rview o f the - pdf za darmo

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US NUCLEAR SUBMARINES: THE FAST ATTACK

I NT R O D U CTI ON h is boo k co ns titutes a brie f ove rview o f th e deve lo p me nt of o ne typ e of su bmarine over a peri od of 50 years, Mu ch o f the hi story of th ese boats is sh ro uded in secrecy, a n d co ns ists o f th o usands of m en sp ending e n d less d ays o n patrol , preservin g th e peace by th eir preseu ce, In th e main , dIe)' we re a n d co n tin ue to be successfu l in thi s mi ssion. H ere is not a sto ry of h eroi c battles wh ere sh ips a re torpedo ed a n d airc ra ft sho t d own, b ut ra th er a sto ry of e ngi neeri ng tr ad e-o il's a nd te chn ol ogical ad vances. Th e heroi cs are in the work itsel f.

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THE PROPULSION PROBLE M Ea rly su b ma ri ne evo lut io n is m arked by a struggle to ove rcome th e prob le m o f h ow to propel th e su b ma rine effic ie n tly both o n th e surface a n d su b me rged. This e n gin ee rin g challc nge ca n be divi d ed into two interrelat ed co nc e r ns - hull form a nd propulsion . T he propulsi on problem drives th e hu ll form probl em . Th e US su b ma ri ne of 1945, e m bo d ied by th e Balao an d Ten ch classes, su ffered from two se rious sho rtc om ings - limited unde rwat er 1~lI1ge and ina deq ua te speed . To run co m ple tely subme rge d th c sub ma ri ne had to o pera te o n its batt erv/ e lec tric m ot or co mb inatio n alo ne. T he 1~lI1ge in

Polar bears examin e a Sturgeon Class boat surfaced in the Arctic. When surfaced in th e ocean for a swim call , th e boat crew posts an armed shark wa tch. When surfaced in the Arctic , the boat has a polar bear watch. Even though the person is armed, his main job is not to kill the bears but to warn personnel on the ice th at a be ar has been sighted. On the occ asion of a sight ing the ice is evacuated, leaving the bear in charge of the territory.

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th is mode II~IS 10 na utica l mi les (n m) a t R knot s o r :"iOn m at 2 kn ots. th e differen ce d ue to th e batteries' ab ility to sup p ly a large qua nt ity of a m ps (h ig h d ischarge rat e) lo r a short time lx-Io re th ev were ex ha us ted an d had to be re cha rged. A smalle r d isch a rge ra te m eant th e boat m oved slo wer bu t co u ld do so fo r a longe r tim e . An a nswer to th is ra nge e nd u ra nce p roblem was the snorkel. a sma ll indu ct ion p ipe th at rea che d above the surface an d supp lied a ir to the di esel e ngin es. alloll; ng the m to I"IIn wh ile the bo at was sub me rged . Ho wever, the suo r kel ing su bmari ne is noisier- b~ ' far- tha n o ne running on th e sa me n umber o f e ngines on th e su rfa ce , a nd q u iet n ess is part of th e subma rine 's un d erwater ad vantage. Th e speed issu e invol ved a reth inking of th e enti re o u te r sbell (h u ll) d esign. :\ first ste p was to remove all th e things th at caused flow resistance . th us wast ing e nergy, This modificat ion cu t th e flow resista nce o f th e Wodd War II fleet subm arin e by nearlv 50 pe rce n t. an d was on e of th e prin cipal measu res o f th e G u p py co nversio n o f m an y " 'o d d Wa r II bo a ts. (G up py was th e G rea ter U nde rwate r Propu lsion Prog ram, wh ich exte nded th e useful postwar life of di esel-electri c sub ma ri nes by re moving items su ch as deck gu ns so as to stream lin e th ei r hu lls. in crea sing batt ery ca pac ity. a nd th e addit ion of sno rke l syste ms .) Fo r a give n hull d esign . however. a n increase in spe ed is di rect ly d ependent o n th e amount o f power put in to th e wat er. an d eq ua tes d ir ectl y to shaft horsepower (sh p). Speed is rel at ed to a cha nge in sh p as th e cu bic fun ction o f th e cha nge. T h us to go fro m 5 to 10 knots (d o ubling) req u ire s a n e ig h tfo ld (two cu be d) in crease in sh p. To go fro m th e maxim run 10 kn ots short-term subm e rged speed o f a fleet sub mari ne to th e ex pec ted sho rt-te r m sp ee d of 15 to 20 kn ots o f a replacem en t d esign re q u ired a u in crease fro m 5.400sh p to ove r IR.OOOsh p . Mot o r a nd batt ery desig ns ca pa ble of thi s h o rsepower would be huge a n d much too la rge f(1I- sub ma ri ne re q uirem e nts. So m e th ing e lse had to tak e th e place of the di esel-elect ric desig n . Fortunat ely. a n ew so urce o f c n ergv \\< IS becom in g availa ble th at would change evervt h ing .

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From le ft to righ t: a Skate Cla ss, a Perm it Cla ss, and a Tan g Clas s. The two outboard boats ar e nucl ear. Th e inboa rd boat is

a dt esel-et ectrt c . Th e fin- like protrusi on on the bow of th e Tang Class boat is th e forward

hydrophone s et for th e BOG-4 PUFFS sonar syst em , whi eh bec am e th e Wide Aperture Array portion of t he BOO-S on th e Seawalf and Virginia Cla sse s.

EVOLUTION - NAUTILUS TO V IRGINIA

Down the hatch. Onc e a submari ne is built everything that goes into the ship or comes out mu st pass through this vertical hatch syst em , th e diameter of wh ich is less t han 30in. This means all stores and supplies must be handed up and down by cha ins of sa ilors. In this wa y the modem fast attack submarine is little different from the 18th-century sa iling warship.

T he post-Wo rld War II US submari ne co m m u ni ty was faced with two sign itica lll cha lle nges, First ,,'as a surplus of su bmari n es that we re of a te n-yea r-old d esign , T he world for wh ich th e, ' were d esign ed elfec tivelv ceased to ex ist in lat e 19-1:, - it was p e rcei ved hy th e ge nera l p u b lic a n d man y in the gm'ern m e nt tha t there was no th reat o n the hori zon tha t req uired a large maritim e presen ce , Th ese boat s an d the stra tegy tha t surro u n ded th eir use h ad be en p remised o n cu tti ng e ne mies ' lin es o f seaborne su p p ly a nd co m m u n ica tio n , Th e su bma rine force had to lind new task s to suppon its co n tin ued ex iste nce , Th e seco nd p roblem was th e possib ility th a t th e Sovie t l' n ion possessed a t leas t a dozen Germ an Type XXI sub ma ri nes a nd wo uld re p ro d uce th is d esign o r a n im p roved d esign in la rge q uanr ities . Th ese boats were a d istin ct th reat to th e US l\';I\'y, Properly o pe ra te d thev we re fas te r th an d estroyer so na r co u ld track a nd co u ld out ruu a d estroye r in roug h seas, Thus a n ~' batt le gro u p th at h oped to oppo se a ra pid Sovie t advan ce into th e North At la nt ic o r No rt h Pacific oce an s was se rio usly a t risk, To co nside r th e o p tio ns avai lable for n ew su b ma rines, the Office o f th e Ch ief of :\';\\~II Operations (O pNav) fo rm ed the Sh ip Charac te ristic Board (SCB) 10 rep lace th e Ce ne ra! Board for sh ip design , Th e SCB produced d esign req u ire m en ts ca lled cha rac te ristics a nd eac h was given a n u mber, In ad d itio n , th e SCB p roduced d esign policy docum ents that se rve d as guid ance fo r not only th e design , b u t th e fle et impl em entation o f th e d esign fea tures, Th e SCB in 1945/ 46 rea lized that it h ad to redesign the fleet sub marine and th e new d esign had to he as good as, or (p re fe ra b ly) be tte r th an , the Type XX I U-boa t. Design ch ara cte ristics th at th e SCB want ed im p ro ved includ ed so na r, weap o n ry, sile nc ing, batte rie s a nd u nd e rwate r e nd u ra nce, propulsion syste m s, an d un d erwa ter sp eed a nd co ntrol. In the fa ll o f 1945 Co m mod o re Co mstock, th e h ead of th e Bureau o f Sh ips (BuSh ips), aske d skippers a nd ope ra tional co m ma n ders for their views o n new su bmari ne d esign re q u ire ments in th e a reas of speed , d esign d epth . power p lan ts , a nd th e effe ct o f nucl ea r ,,'eapons on su bma rine ope ra tions a nd st raregv Based on the res ults , th e d esign o pe ra ting d ept h o f new su bmarines was to be increased to 700ft. with an eye toward 1,000f!, Un de rwate r speed wo u ld have to be in crea sed - much o f thi s co uld be a tta ined by re moving all ex te rnal ap pe n dages, smoot h ing th e h ull lines , a nd th rough Iairiu g. Mo de l testin g sh owed th at a short su bmarine had bett e r un d erwat e r performa nce tha n lo nge r sub ma ri nes . Th e o u tcome of th e ini tia l d esign study was th e 1947 d esign fix th e Ta ng Class (SC B 2), I n ad d itio n to th is d esign , in 1946 Op NaY a u tho rized a n imm ediate expe rime n ta l p ro gram th at incl uded two nuclear p ro p u lsio n proto typ es, fo u r close d-cvcle systems (in wh ich th e fuel a nd ox d izer ca rried o n bo ard allo wed th e e ngines or boil ers to be o pe ra te d with out ex te r n al a ir), o ne a rc tic, a nd o ne midget subm a rin e , This p ro gram was in ad d itio n to th e bui ld cycle fo r the Tan gs. Budget restraints, h oweve r, lim ite d th e Tang sc hed u le fro m six pe r yea r to two per yea r a nd put co n str uct io n o f the prototyp es on h old b ecause the d esigns we re cha ng ing too fast . Th en in 1950, the ent ire US d efense budget was se rious ly curta ile d . Th e sub m a rine force struggled to h ave a nv n ew su bmarines b u ilt a t a ll. By th e tim e th e Fiscal Yea r (FY ) 1952

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budge: cycle ca me a ro u nd . the Tan g d esign was six years o ld . a nd a new design was needed 10 keep pace with the Soviets, T he :\;1\:-. usin g th e sa h ~lge d e ngi ne room fro m lJ-J-I(J(ja nd a 7.500h p turbiuc from a German TYVe XXVI . tested the closed-cycle Walte r system at An napolis in 194:>-47. Th e \\'alt er design \\~IS the tYVe used in th e Type XXY!. and used hydro gen peroxide as an oxidant to he co m bine d with a fuel 10 drive eit her an e ngi ne o r turbin e , O ne of the init ial Tang designs em'isaged usin g two of th e turb ines \\irh rhe \rall e r sy's lem; however, th is system wa s so large it wouldn 't fi t in th e proposed hull. Other alternat ive submarine propulsion design s we re studied . T hese in cluded two g;Ls tu rbine se mi-e nc losed syste ms. an ex te rna l co m bustio n co ndensing cycle. th e free-piston g;Ls ge net

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