The Boeing 747

629 133349 M66b . ^,^^ . The Boeing 747 David H. Minton lAB Blue Ridge AERO Summit, PA ^^____-^ • 4.0 A - pdf za darmo

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629 133349 M66b .

^,^^

.

The Boeing 747 David H. Minton

lAB Blue Ridge

AERO

Summit, PA

^^____-^



4.0

Allen County Public Library

R. Wayne, Indiana

FIRST EDITION FIRST PRINTING

©

1991 by

TAB Books

TAB/ AERO Books, an imprint is

of

TAB

Books.

a division of McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. responsibility for the use of any of the materials or

The publisher

methods described

takes

in this

no

book,

nor for the products thereof.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Minton, David.

The Boeing 747 p.

cm.



/ by David H. Minton. (Aero series v. 40) ;

Includes index.

ISBN 0-8306-3574-2 Boeing 747

1.

(Jet transports)

TL686.B65M57

I.

Title.

1991

629.1 33 '349-dc20

90-21315

CIP

TAB Books offers software for sale. For information TAB Software Department, Blue Ridge Summit, PA Questions regarding the content of

this

and a catalog, please contact 17294-0850.

book should be addressed

to:

Reader Inquiry Branch

TAB Books Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17294-0850 Acquisitions Editor: Jeff Worsinger

Book

Editor: Steven H.

Mesner Brown Boone

Production: Katherinc G.

Book Design: Jaclyn

J.

Cover photograph courtesy of Boeing Commercial Airplane Group.

Contents Acknowledgments

vii

Introduction 1

In the Beginning Bigger and Better First

Orders

6

In Development Two

Basic Versions

Putting the

Custom

Milestones

in

11 12

Big Top and Megatop

3

1

1

8

First Flight

2

ix

in

15

Customer

23

Landing Features Electronics

25

27

Production Problems

The Future

21

23

In Detail Engines

17

Boeing 747 Development

38

34

1

In Uniform

39

United States Air Force

40

Iranian Air Force

NASA

39

41

One

Air Force

43

44

Other Uniforms

In the

News

45

46 Crashes and Smashes Tenerife 50 Setting Records

Terrorism

5

Lockerbie

52 55

Rocket Attack

Tokyo 57 Aging Aircraft

The Future

47

57

59

In Scale

61

1/200 Scale

61

1/144 Scale

67

1/156 Scale

71

1/125 Scale

71

1/100 Scale

72

Conversions

73

Decals

73

Appendix: Boeing 747 Fleet Listing Index

77 113

Acknowledgments I

would

cial

like to

acknowledge support from the following: Boeing Commer-

Airplanes, McGraw-Hill, Aviation Data Center, Kit Collectors Clear-

inghouse, and Airliners magazine.

VII

Introduction THIS BOOK

is

for

you

if

you are an

airliner observer, historian, or modeler, or if

have any interest in the Boeing 747. military and civil versions, both

It

covers

American and

all

variants of the

foreign.

It

747

you

in use, including

discusses the origins of the

design and the evolution of the 747 into a "world class" airplane like no other— probably the single greatest contribution in

modern times

meet and mingle. Beginning as a "wide -body"

jet in a class all its

to allowing the people of the

own from

the start, the

world

747 has

evolved into one of the most sophisticated, complex, and cost-efficient aircraft ever It

carries

more people

significant historical events associated with

Many

built.

book chronicles the way, pointing out some of the colorful and

farther than any other aircraft in existence. This

history of the magnificent 747, while along the

dents.

to

it,

including records, terrorism, and acci-

of the most colorful schemes ever put on a 747 are illustrated, together with a

fleet listing. Finally, the

book covers

virtually all of the

construction, conversion, and livery tips provided for In short, if

you are interested

in the

models of the 747

many of the most

747, this book has something

available, with

important.

in

it

for you.

IX

1

In the Beginning LIKE ALL Boeing airplanes, the Model 747 began with an idea. For the 747, the largest commercial

ment foreseen

jet in service, the idea

was

to

meet a requirement yet unborn, a require-

imaginations— not yet a

in certain people's

reality,

not yet discovered.

The

basic issue concerned projections for air travel in the 21st century.

These projections heralded more: a

same

airports

lot

more

travelers

and a

lot

more cargo using

the

and the same airplanes. Some people envisioned an almost steady "airplane in and out of airports using conventional airwould be full of airplanes as people arrived and departed. types were not the answer, because each airplane could hold

conveyer belt" of people being transported planes.

More

Day and

night, the sky

airplanes of existing

only so

many

people, so

more

airplanes

wouldn't help, because people wanted

to

would simply get go

to the

in the way.

same basic

More

destinations.

airports

There was

simply no place to put more airports.

Bigger and Better more planes and more airports wouldn't meet the need, then the answer had to be bigger And, in Boeing's case, bigger implied a lot bigger. When the Boeing 747 was first conceived, the largest intercontinental airliner in service was the Boeing 707, which

If

airplanes.

could carry up to 200 people (depending on configuration). tional airport in the

world and was

carriers throughout the world. to fly farther, faster, higher,

in service, at that time,

The 747 was envisioned to 500 people

and carry up

aircraft as the 707. In addition to relieving the

per passenger

is

many

people.

at a

all is

fly to

time— over twice

overcrowded

When

could

any interna-

as the 707's replacement, but able

possibility of lower operating costs per passenger, since the

carrying more than twice as

It

with approximately 70 different

as

many per

skies, this aircraft offered the

same four engines would be

said and done, the operating cost

perhaps the single most important consideration

to the

passenger carrier.

Pan American was the first to order the 747 and has used them since the beginning. Seen here in that carrier's most recent markings, with the titles in large letters in Pan Am blue on the fuselage in lieu of a cheat line, N740PA, Clipper Ocean Pearl, a series 121 makes her way across the skies. ,

All carriers (with the exception of

ness to

when

make

the

747 was

magnified as

government-owned or subsidized

carriers) are in busi-

a profit and stay in business. In a sense, because airlines were

it is

which promised

first

conceived and fuel was a

today. But

to

be

it

much

was

better

still

lot

more regulated

cheaper, the profit incentive was not as

a major consideration, as

on a two-aisle wide-bodied

was passenger comfort,

jet.

Regulation had been a natural fallout of the original subsidy of the airline companies to carry mail. In the beginning, the ers,

U.S. government was the largest customer of the carri-

paying for the transportation of mail, by

Mail Service (as

it

was then

air,

across the United States. With the Air

called), a letter could get

from

New

York

to

San Francisco

in

about 20 hours, with an average of 18 stops along the way, whereas surface mail (by train) could take up to three days. Passengers were included more by accident than by design.

The

carrier

would have a contract with

the U.S.

Government

to

pay for the specific route,

and any additions or extra freight— passenger or otherwise— that was carried just happened.

As

it

became apparent

that the

ground service requirements

important and expensive as the aircraft

itself,

for aircraft

the involvement of the

were

government

just as

in

terms

became more and more complicated. In this sense, "ground service" included much more than just refueling and loading the jet; it also provided for all of of services and safety

the runways and terminals,

all

of the landing and instrument aids, and

all

of the various

navigation aids that were slowly springing up across the United States. In the meantime,

passengers began to provide real income to the carriers, and carrying the mail and other

government merchandise slowly became of secondary rather than primary importance

most of the

carriers.

The

airlines

began

to evolve.

to

The dijference

between the 747, with its two deck configuration, and the nearwide-body aircraft, the DC-10, is illustrated here. The 747 can carry times as many passengers as the original DC-9 and a little less than twice as in capacity

est similar capacity

about six many as the DC-10 illustrated here.

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Overseas Airways Corporation) later British Airways, was one of the early operators of the 747. Seen here with the gold speedbird on the tail, NM12799B was later delivered as G-ANNA. (British

,

But

tomer

it

was easy

for the

government

to slip

from the position of being the primary cus-

to subsidizing the various carriers to develop

and provide incentives for

air travel.

Therefore, the public began to get a deceptive idea of the true cost of air travel.

From

the

very beginning, carriers had a real idea of their real operating costs, and the proposed

Model 747

offered a simple

an increase

in

way

to decrease these costs.

A

decrease in costs translated to

profits— the ideal proposition for carriers. Under deregulation, the cost sub-

sidy of the fare structure for the individual carriers

would be removed. With

this

removal,

The 747, largest of the Boeing jetliners, can carry over six times as many people as the Boeing 737, smallest of the Boeing jetliners. Here the first Western Airlines 737 series 200 is seen in the original Indian Head markings.

the actual cost of the fare

cost

is

driven

Expense

would become more important. Unfortunately

much more by

(DOE)— than

and a domicile

in

the total operating

expenses— including

one might expect. Thus,

San Francisco, the

total cost

if

for the carriers,

the Direct Operating

a carrier has a domicile in

New

York

of operating a modern jetliner between

747 has more directly replaced the intercontinental 707s, widely in use...

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