The History of Weapons and Warfare - Ancient Egypt

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ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY

3 1833 04343 2951

the History of

Weapons and Warfare

^jTwmTI

EGYPT

the History of

Weapons and warfare

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the History of

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Other books

in this series include:

Ancient Greece Ancient

Rome

The Civil War The Middle Ages The Native Americans

Weapons and Warfare

the History of

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£\KI(gE Don Nardo

>3» LUCENT BOOKS"

THOMSON *

GALE San Diego



Detroit



New

York



San Francisco



Cleveland



New

Haven. Conn



Waterville.

Maine



London



Munich



TMOIVISCDIM *

GALE

Cover image: A painting from the front panel of a chest found depicting the massacre of the Nubians.

©

2003 by Lucent Books. Lucent Books

a division of

Thomson

Lucent Books® and

Learning,

is

King Tutankhamen's

in

an imprint of The Gale Group,

tomb

Inc.,

Inc.

Thomson Learning™

are trademarks used herein under license.

For more information, contact Lucent Books

27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, Ml 48331-3535 Or you can visit our Internet site at http://www.gale.com

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution or information storage retrieval systems without the written permission of the publisher.





LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBUCATION DATA Nardo, Don, 1947-

Ancient Egypt p.

cm.

/

Don Nardo.

— (History of weapons and warfare)

Summary: Discusses the weapons used by the ancient Egyptians and means of warfare. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-59018-066-6 (hardback 1.

Military art

and science

Juvenile literature.

3.

:

alk.

their different

paper)

— Egypt —Juvenile literature.

2.

Egypt— History, Military— Juvenile

Ancient— Juvenile literature. [1. Military Military. 3. Egypt— History— To 332 B.C.]

art I.

and science

Title.

II.

Military

weapons

literature.

— Egypt.

2.

4.

— Egypt

Military history,

Egypt— History,

Series.

U31 .N37 2003

355'.00932—dc21

2002000447

Printed

in

the United States of America

1

Contents Foreword

8

Introduction Fighting to Keep

10 the

Dark Forces

at

Bay

Chapter One Early Egyptian

15

Weapons and Warfare

Chapter Two The New Kingdom and

26 Chariot Warfare

Chapter Three

42

Military Service and Organization

Chapter Four

53

Borders, Fortifications, and Sieges

Chapter Five

65

Egypt's Military Zenith: The Battle of Kadesh

Chapter Six

76

Warships and the Defeat of the Sea Peoples

Epilogue

86

Decline of the Egyptian Military

Notes Glossary For Further Reading Major Works Consulted Additional Works Consulted Index Picture Credits About the Author

93 97 99 100 103 105 1

1

1

12

Foreword The

earliest battle

when Egyptian and Hittite em-

place in 1274 B.C. at Kadesh, in Syria, the armies of the

For

pires clashed.

torians devote a

war of which

the

this reason,

good deal of

know

Kadesh. Yet they

it

Even

about which any de-

information has survived took

tailed

modern

attention to

that this battle

was a

part

his-

and

were not the

with

Many

neighbors.

mentioned

religion,

the necessity of

war was widely accepted.

Most people saw

it

of defending

as the

most natural means

maintaining security,

territory,

or settling disputes.

A character in a dialogue

by the fourth-century B.C. Greek thinker Plato declares:

All

other earlier conflicts are

ancient inscriptions found

in

from the dawn of recorded history

states

ity,

.

.

For what is

every city

war with one

men in general

only a name; in reala natural state of

is in

war with every other, not indeed proclaimed by heralds, but everlast-

economic dominance. it is

are always at .

term peace

city-

fought one another for political or

Moreover,

men

another.

throughout the Near East and other regions,

likely that warfare long

ing.

.

.

.

No

possessions or institu-

predated city-states and written records.

tions are of any value to

Some

defeated in battle; for

scholars go so far as to suggest that

Cro-Magnons, the direct ancestors of modern humans, wiped out another early

human group



the

Neanderthals



in

the hands of the conquerors.

a

prolonged and fateful conflict in the dim

Even

past.

likely that

gaged

if this

did not happen,

it

is

even the earliest humans en-

in conflicts

and other

man

and battles over

factors.

"Warfare

is

terri-

stinct is king."

himself," writes

Considering the thousands of conflicts

have raged across the world since

that

Plato's time,

it

would seem

inevitable part of the

War not

almost

renowned military historian John Keegan, "and reaches into the most secret places of the human heart, places where self dissolves rational purpose, where pride reigns, where emotion is paramount, where inas old as

him who is the good

all

things of the conquered pass into

the

tory

"civilized,"

and organized

fought by the Egyptians and their

first

as

humans became

after

cities, writing,

ality, it

that

human

war

is

an

condition.

only remains an ever-present re-

has also had undeniably crucial and

human society and As Keegan puts it, "History lessons remind us that the states in which we live have come to us through conflict, of-

far-reaching effects on its

development.

.

.

.

ten of the the

most bloodthirsty

world's

first

and oldest

sort."

Indeed,

nation-state,

— Foreword Egypt, was born out of a war between the

An

two kingdoms

gence of two tendencies, fear of war

that originally

modern

area; the

occupied the

nations of Europe rose

and

from the wreckage of the sweeping barbar-

more information about the making of war in earlier times, not

and the United States was established

only in terms of tools, techniques,

by a bloody revolution between colonists

and

their

thirst for

and methods used

British

mother country.

from varying the

factors.

Sometimes

whom

wars are

and have been fought and how men

have

the side

possessed overwhelming numbers or

about

set

business

the

of

preparing for and fighting them.

most persistence won; other times supeand strategy played key

rior generalship roles. In

many

cases, the side with the

advanced and deadly weapons was

most

victori-

ous. In fact, the invention of increasingly

and devastating tools of war has

lethal

largely

Among

books

societies



it

has affected vari-

lie at

in Lucent's History

Warfare

series.

the core of the

of Weapons and

Each book examines

the

of

war

at the time, as

well as specifics

about weapons, strategies, battle forma-

were the composite bow, the war

tions, infantry, cavalry, sieges, naval tac-

and the stone

astating all before

made

his horse,

for

the major advances in an-

castle.

Another was

spearman marching forward as a

it

unit,

dev-

In medieval times, the

it.

on

easier for a rider to stay

increasing the effectiveness of

cavalry charges.

And

cannons, handguns, planes, missiles,

tics,

and the

Where

lives

leaders

military

and experiences of both

and ordinary descriptions

possible,

campaigns and lustrate

how

battles are

soldiers.

of actual

provided to

il-

came

to-

these various factors

gether and decided the fate of city, a nation,

a progression of late

or a people. Frequent quotations by con-



temporary participants or observers, as

medieval and modern weapons

made

human

ous

exploring the beliefs about and motivations

development

the

Greek phalanx, a mass of close-packed

stirrup

the evolution of warfare

new

cient times chariot,



warfare of a pivotal people or era in detail,

stimulating

tactics.

These themes

and weapons and how

driven the evolution of warfare,

counter-weapons, strategies, and battlefield

the

warfare, but

in

by

also of the people

Victory in these and other wars resulted

that

interest in the past, has seen a

Roman Em-

ian invasions that destroyed the pire;

inevitable result of the conver-

rifles,

including

submarines,

air-

and the atomic bomb

warfare deadlier than ever.

well as by noted ans,

modern

add depth and

ume

features

an

military histori-

authenticity.

extensive

Each

vol-

annotated

Each such technical advance made war more devastating and therefore more feared. And to some degree, people are drawn to and fascinated by what they fear, which accounts for the high level of interest in studies of warfare and the weapons used to wage it. Military historian John

bibliography to guide those readers inter-

Hackett writes:

man

ested in further research to the most important

and comprehensive works on warfare

in the

period in question.

The

series pro-

vides students and general readers with a useful

means of understanding what

grettably

is re-

one of the driving forces of hu-

history



violent

human

conflict.

Introduction

Keep the Dark Forces at Bay

Fighting to

Weapons

and warfare played an

role in the history



cient Egypt. Indeed, the Egyptian realm

world's

first

doms, making

integral

—was

true nation-state

the

B.C.,

two

distinct

kingdoms. And,

tle,

as the

doms evolved along the Nile River, one in the

Even

south (called Upper Egypt because

fare

lay

closer to the Nile's source), the other in the

north (Lower Egypt). These states

came

he also adopted

significantly,

the mace, a club used to

Egyptian king-

it

his capital;

crowns worn by the leaders of those

the

literally

forged on the anvil of war. During the fourth

millennium

it

a crown that combined the main features of

and culture of an-

tent

to-

symbol of the pharaoh 's

after the

and

in bat-

authority.

mace became obsolete in war-

many centuries

in official

he established

smash heads

later, its

image remained

artistic representations,

a po-

reminder that the Egyptian king was

gether i...

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