The Royal Tombs of Ancient Egypt

THE ROYAL TOMBS OF ANCIENT EGYPT Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page i To the memories - pdf za darmo

16 downloads 50408 Views 16MB Size

Recommend Stories


Empire of Ancient Egypt
G R E AT E M P I R E S O F T H E PA S T EMPIRE OF ANCIENT EGYPT Revised Edition GEofP-AncientEgypt_FNL.indd - pdf za darmo

ancient egypt pack
Personal Use Only: This document is provided to you for your own personal use. You agree that you will - pdf za darmo

DK - The Encyclopedia of War. From Ancient Egypt to Iraq
WAR the encyclopedia of f r o m a n c i e n t e g y p t t o i r a q EDITORIAL CONSULTANT SAUL DAVID WAR - pdf za darmo

All About History Book of Ancient Egypt
Book of NEW IIICCCOOONNNIIICCC PPPHHHAAARRRAAAOOOHHHSSS PPPYYYRRRAAAMMMIIIDDDSSS HHHIIIEEERRROOOGGGLLLYYYPPPHHHIIICCCSSS - pdf za darmo

Going to War in Ancient Egypt (Armies of the Past)
Going to War in Ancient Egypt (Armies of the Past) - pdf za darmo

Fortress 098 - The Fortifications of Ancient Egypt 3000-1780 BC
THE FORTIFICATIONS OF ANCIENT EGYPT 3000-1780 BC CAROLA VOGEL ILLUSTRATED BY BRIAN DELF ABOUT THE AUTHOR - pdf za darmo

The History of Weapons and Warfare - Ancient Egypt
ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBRARY 3 1833 04343 2951 the History of Weapons and Warfare ^jTwmTI EGYPT the History - pdf za darmo

All About History Book of Ancient Egypt 2-Edition
Explore one of the greatest ancient civilisations to have walked the Earth Book of ANCIENT NEW In 1922 - pdf za darmo

A History of Ancient Egypt Volume 2 - From the Great Pyramid to the Fall of the Middle Kin
JOHN ROMER A History of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2 From the Great Pyramid to the Fall of the Middle Kingdom - pdf za darmo

DK - The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Warfare. From Ancient Egypt to Iraq
DK - The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Warfare. From Ancient Egypt to Iraq - pdf za darmo

Story Transcript


Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page i

THE ROYAL TOMBS OF ANCIENT EGYPT

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page ii

To the memories of:

Edwin C. Brock (1946–2015), Otto J. Schaden (1937–2015) and Nabil Swelim (1935–2015)

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page iii

THE ROYAL TOMBS OF ANCIENT EGYPT Aidan Dodson

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page iv

First published in Great Britain in 2016 by PEN & SwOrD ArChAEOlOGy an imprint of Pen and Sword Books ltd 47 Church Street Barnsley South yorkshire S70 2AS Copyright © Aidan Mark Dodson, 2016 ISBN 978 1 47382 159 0

The right of Aidan Mark Dodson to be identified as the author of work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

A CIP record for this book is available from the British library

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from the Publisher in writing. Printed and bound in England by CPI Group (UK) ltd, Croydon, Cr0 4yy Typeset in Times New roman by ChIC GrAPhICS

Pen & Sword Books Ltd incorporates the imprints of Pen & Sword Archaeology, Atlas, Aviation, Battleground, Discovery, Family history, history, Maritime, Military, Naval, Politics, railways, Select, Social history, Transport, True Crime, Claymore Press, Frontline Books, leo Cooper, Praetorian Press, remember when, Seaforth Publishing and wharncliffe. For a complete list of Pen and Sword titles please contact Pen and Sword Books limited 47 Church Street, Barnsley, South yorkshire, S70 2AS, England E-mail: [email protected] website: www.pen-and-sword.co.uk

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page v

Contents Preface....................................................................................................vi Abbreviations and Conventions...........................................................viii

Introduction ............................................................................................ix

Maps .......................................................................................................xi Chapter 1

In the Beginning..................................................................1

Chapter 3

The First Intermediate Period ...........................................36

Chapter 2

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

The Old Kingdom ..................................................................12

The Middle Kingdom........................................................39

The Second Intermediate Period.......................................53

The New Kingdom............................................................61

The Third Intermediate Period........................................106

The Saite and later Periods ............................................118

Endnotes .............................................................................................128

Chronology of Ancient Egypt.............................................................145

references ..........................................................................................151

Bibliography .......................................................................................152

Sources of Images...............................................................................152

Index ...................................................................................................182 Tables..................................................................................................189

Figures ................................................................................................192 Plates ...............................................................................................at end

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page vi

Preface The tombs of the kings of Egypt include some of the most iconic sepulchres of all time, and very many books – of distinctly variable quality – have been published on various groupings or aspects of them. Indeed, the present writer has issued a volume on the pyramids and another on the tombs that followed them. however, none ever seems to have attempted to provide coverage of all such monuments, from the earliest times down to the end of paganism, including both native rulers, buried in Egypt, and those of foreign monarchs, buried abroad. The present volume is an attempt to fill this gap, and as such includes descriptions, images, discussions and references for not only such tombs as the pyramids and those in the Valley of the Kings, but also the funerary monuments of the kings of Persia (who formed the Twenty-seventh and Thirty-first Egyptian Dynasties) and the mausolea of the roman emperors, who continued to claim pharaonic dignity down to the end of the third century AD. It also provides data on the tombs of the families of the kings as Egypt, an aspect of the Egyptian funerary world that is rarely covered, with the exception of a few ‘star’ tombs, for example that of Nefertiry, wife of rameses II. Aside from providing the full story of the Egyptian royal tomb, the opportunity has been taken to include the results of the very latest fieldwork in Egypt, which has revealed a whole hitherto-unsuspected royal cemetery at Abydos, a tomb full of members of the royal family in the Valley of the Kings, and the tombs of more family members in a remote valley at western Thebes. As very much work-in-progress, it is possible that some of the initial conclusions reported here (some from the excavators’ oral presentations at conferences, in particular the 2015 annual meeting of the American research Centre in Egypt in houston and the ‘Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2015’ conference in Prague) may change from the position when the manuscript for the present book was submitted in the autumn of 2015. In writing a book such as this, one inevitably falls into the debt of many people; in particular, I would like to thank Felix Arnold, Andrew Chugg, Caterin Johansson, Piers litherland, Dawn McCormack, Alireza Moftakhori, leire Olabarria, hourig Sourouzian, Joe wegner, Kent weeks and Magdy Abu-hamid Ali for all their help, as well as others who have allowed me to visit their work, discussed finds, provided images or assisted in a wide range of ways. In doing so, I must pay tribute to Edwin Brock and Otto Schaden, two of my oldest friends in Egyptology, who died shortly after the manuscript was completed and to whom this book is dedicated. Much of their careers vi

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page vii

were devoted to the Valley of the Kings, Ted in particular for his work on the study and reconstruction of the royal sarcophagi, Otto to the clearance and study of the tombs of Ay and Amenmeses, also finding the first ‘new’ tomb there since Tutankhamun’s – KV63, perhaps the embalming cache of that tomb. Also taken from us during the same fatal autumn was Nabil Swelim, another old friend, in this case in the study of pyramids, among whose distinctions was the rediscovery of the Brick Pyramid at Abu rowash, ‘hidden in plain sight’ for many decades. I would also like to thank my principal partners in tomb and temple visiting over the years, my wife Dyan hilton and my dear friend Salima Ikram, for their company and insights. I am also indebted to Martin Davies and reg Clark for proofreading the manuscript (and providing photographs!), but all surviving errors of typography, fact and/or judgement remain, of course, my own responsibility. Department of Archaeology & Anthropology March 2016 University of Bristol

vii

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page viii

Abbreviations and Conventions BM EMC G KhM KV l louvre MMA NMS NrT Ny Carlsberg QV TA TT UPMAA wV

British Museum, london, UK. Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt. Giza monument number. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria Valley of the Kings tomb number. Pyramid number assigned by richard lepsius. Musée du louvre, Paris, France. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New york. National Museums Scotland, Edinburgh, UK. Tanis royal cemetery tomb number. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen, Denmark. Valley of the Queens tomb number. Tell el-Amarna tomb number. Theban Tomb number. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA, USA. western Valley of the Kings tomb number.

renderings of Egyptian names are intended as far as possible to preserve the original consonantal structure of the original written Egyptian, rather than any hypothetical ancient pronunciation. Persons of the same name are distinguished by roman numerals (upper case for kings and certain other senior figures; lower case for others) or letters, according to a basic system that has been developing within Egyptology since the 1970s (see Dodson and hilton 2004: 39). This is not wholly internally coherent, as it is desirable to preserve some long-standing designations for avoidance of confusion. when giving bibliography for monuments, for reasons of brevity references are generally restricted to Porter and Moss (various dates) and substantive publications that have appeared after the publication of the relevant Porter and Moss volume.

viii

Book-Royal Tombs-NEW_234x156 12/07/2016 14:30 Page ix

Introduction The Egyptian tomb was at its heart a magical machine for aiding the journey of a dead person from this world to the next, and keeping them nourished in the beyond. To fulfil this role, it ideally comprised two distinct elements, the burial chamber in which the body would lie for eternity, and an offering place where food and drink could be placed by the living for the benefit of the dead, or which could generate such nourishment by means of written spells and often painted or carved depictions. The most elaborate examples of su...

Life Enjoy

When life gives you a hundred reasons to cry, show life that you have a thousand reasons to smile

Get in touch

Social

© Copyright 2016 - 2019 AZPDF.PL - All rights reserved.