The Secret World War II

DOMWWSOM I All DOMlflWSOti World War II was fought not only by huge masses of armed forces. It was often - pdf za darmo

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Story Transcript


DOMWWSOM

I

All DOMlflWSOti World War II was fought not only by huge masses of armed forces. It was often fought, too, by small groups as well as individual

men and women

without uniforms or public recognition.

And

there was

much

highly

important, and occasionally reprehensible,

work

carried out behind

the scenes that was to remain secret until

now.

The

Secret

World War

II goes be-

hind the closed doors to unveil the courage and cowardice, the patriotism and treason, the glory and the

infamy that was tory

as real to Allied vic-

and Axis defeat

Day landings or the

as

were the D-

Battle of Britain.

Spies, counterspies, Enigma, Ultra

Secret, censorship,

propaganda, the

underground railway, American concentration camps, and the atomic

bomb

are

secret

World War

some

vealed and

of the facets of the II that

are re-

inspected in this in-

formed and readable volume.

Boston? fuGftc £>i$rarij

Turcfiased with (Federal! (funds

J* x

^'

The Secret Wbrld Vfor

II

WORLD


LflWSON

FRANKLIN WATTS

New

York

I

London

I

1978

Photographs courtesy

Wide World

of:

Photos: pp.

2, 29, 32, 81, 87, 88, 90, 92;

Compton's Encyclopedia, photo by 51, 98; U.S. 75, 109;

(top

Navy:

p. 42; U.S.

Graphic Persuasion

and bottom),

Air Force: pp. 48, 57; U.S.

Inc.,

and Don Lawson: pp. 58

61, 96, 101.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Lawson, Don.

The

secret

World War

II.

Bibliography: p. Includes index.

SUMMARY: activities

and 1.

Discusses

including

ciphers,

World War

intelligence

II

espionage

personnel,

codes

and propaganda.

World War, 1939-1945— Secret service—Juvenile World War, 1939-1945— Secret service.

literature. [1.

DU

2.

Espionage]

I.

Title.

D810.S7L33

940.54^6

ISBN 0-531-01459-2

Copyright

©

1978 by

Don Lawson

All rights reserved

Printed in the United States of America

654321

Library of Congress: p.

7;

Bill Cassin: p. 15; U.S. Signal Corps: pp. 23,

77-21185

Army (top

Air Force: pp.

and bottom), 60

TO MY GREAT, GOOD FRIEND R.

W. "rock" CANNON,

WHO WAS ALWAYS THERE WHEN THE WHISTLE BLEW IN

WORLD WAR

II

—D.L.

1

Contents

I

II

The

Yamamoto

Mysterious Death of Admiral

1

Solving the War's Most Difficult Riddle

War

4

III

Codes and Ciphers in World

IV

Spies Inside the United States

17

Spies in Great Britain

2

Intelligence Comrades-in-Arms

28

How

36

V VI VII VIII

IX

British

and American Agents Were Trained

Behind the Lines

Underground Railway

X How America XI XII XIII

II

46 for

Airmen

Helped Sink the Bismarck

Germany's Secret Vengeance Weapons Japan's Aerial

13

Bombardment of

the United States

American Concentration Camps

XIV Wartime Propaganda and

Censorship

XV The Best Kept Secret of the War

55 67 7

77

84 94 104

Bibliography

112

Index

114

I

The Mysterious Death of Admiral Nhnnannoto On

a crystal-clear tropical

morning

in the spring of 1943

peak of the fighting between the United States and

at the

Japan in the

Pacific

during World

War

II,

two Japanese

Mitsubishi twin-engined bombers approached Kahili port on

Bougainville

"Bettys,"

as

the

Island

American

make

to

flyers

called

a

landing. the

air-

The

Mitsubishi

bombers, were escorted by six Zero fighters manned by the top fighter pilots in the Japanese air force. Their role was

which were carrying extremely

to protect the Bettys,

human

uable

mander

cargo:

in chief of the

val-

Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, comCombined War Fleet of Japan, and

his staff.

Admiral Yamamoto was one of Japan's great war heroes. He had planned the highly successful attack against the U.S. Pacific for the

war

United

throughout the land.

On

fleet at

Pearl Harbor, which started the war

numerous other air strikes including the one on Midway Is-

States, as well as Pacific,

this day,

April

18, 1943,

he was scheduled

to

land

on Bougainville on one leg of an inspection tour of Japanese bases. He and his staff had left the Japanese stronghold of Rabaul at dawn. Having flown the 300 miles (482 km) to Bougainville exactly on time— Yamamoto demanded strict

punctuality in

all

operations— the Bettys and their

Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto,

whose plane was ambushed by American flyers was broken.

after the Japanese secret code

THE MYSTERIOUS DEATH OF ADMIRAL YAMAMOTO escorts

were now preparing

to set

down

3

The

at Kahili.

time

was precisely 9:35 a.m.

And

moment

exactly at this

boomed

sixteen U.S.

Army

twin-

P-38 Lightning fighter planes boiled out of the

sun and, wing-guns blinking death and destruction,

at-

tacked the startled Japanese.

The

free-for-all dogfight that

moments. The

results

followed lasted only a few

were devastating for the Japanese.

Both Betty bombers were destroyed and their passengers killed. Four Zeroes were also shot down. Just one P-38 Lightning failed ful

to return

American mission

The American

from

to "get

ligence officers

success-

P-38 fighter pilots did not encounter Yatheir escorts

a well-planned

by accident.

ambush. U.S. Naval

It

Intel-

had known ahead of time every step that

the Japanese naval hero

The

murderously

Yamamoto."

mamoto's Betty bombers and

had indeed been

this

would take on

his inspection tour.

only gamble was in the timing of the attack. But this

was not really a gamble either, for U.S. Intelligence also

knew

that

Yamamoto was

a fanatic

about arriving on time.

In this instance he had kept a rendezvous with death— virtually to the split second.

How

had U.S. Intelligence obtained

this vital

informa-

By breaking the Japanese naval code. When Yamamoto's tour and timetable were planned, its details were sent in code by radio to all of the air and naval base commanders whom the admiral planned to visit. Some of Yation?

mamoto's aides thought the information should be

deliv-

ered by hand by couriers, but they were overruled by top

Japanese communications

officers

who

insisted the Japa-

nese code could not be broken. Within hours after the in-

formation had been transmitted, however, U.S. Naval Intelligence it

had not only intercepted

and given

it

but had also decoded

a "plain English text" to the key

commanders, both

in

Washington and

on Guadalcanal Island

in the Pacific.

ordered the mission against Yamamoto.

at

American

Henderson Field

They immediately

II

Solving the Vfars

Most Difficult Riddle An

undeclared,

'

'secret"

war began long before actual

World War II. masses of armed men

was a war fought

fighting broke out in

It

not by great

in uniform.

fought by small groups of

even

times clothes

lone

men— and

often

usually

individuals,

It

was

women— some-

wearing

civilian

and often unarmed. The general public almost

never heard about

this secret

war fought between the

in-

and agencies of rival nations, but it was a real war nonetheless and one that was every bit as important as the armed warfare that was to follow. And even telligence agents

when

actual

armed

conflict began, the secret

war between

the various intelligence organizations continued— just as

it

continues today during peacetime.

Germans had developed an electronic cipher machine that enabled them to send secret diplomatic and military messages in what they In Europe in the early 1930s the

believed to be unbreakable code. This machine was called

"Enigma," meaning a

riddle. It

was indeed so complicated

and sent out such complex messages that for a time it appeared that the Germans were right— they had created a riddle that they alone could solve.

This had been a goal

for thousands of years— to create a

SOLVING THE

form of

WAR S MOST DIFFICULT RIDDLE

secret writing that

word cryptology which ,

is

was truly

5

In

fact,

the

the science of secret writing

and

secret.

translation or deciphering, comes from two ancient Greek words, kryptos, meaning "hidden," and logos, meaning "word" or "speech." As far back as biblical times code was used. In the Old

its

Testament, for example, the word Shesach

is

mean

used to

"Babel" or "Babylon." Codes were also used by the early Assyrians

and Egyptians.

Modern cryptology

es-

same meaning and are used interchangeably)

sentially the

began in

or cryptography (the words have

Italy

during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries

when diplomats began

to

communicate

The

other and with their government.

secretly with each

systems they de-

veloped for secret writing, called enciphering, are the basis for

most of today's codes and ciphers.

In America, methods of secret communication were used

by George Washington during the American Revolution.

Not only did Washington invent

a code with

which he and

his intelligence agents inside the British lines could

com-

municate, but he also furnished them with an invisible ink called "secret stain,"

which was made from a formula that

modern chemists have been unable

to duplicate.

A

message

could be written in secret stain ink between the lines of an innocent letter written in regular ink.

The

secret stain

message would remain invisible until brushed with another liquid, the formula for which was also

known only

to

Washington. Other so-called invisible inks became clearly visible

when held over

a candle flame,

but not

by America's revolutionary war leader and

Another United

States president,

so that

first

Thomas

used

president.

Jefferson, in-

vented a rotary or wheel cipher machine that was not unlike the

German Enigma machine

of

World War

rotors were turned by hand, of course, ically,

but

messages.

it

and not

II.

Its

electron-

too produced virtually unbreakable secret

THE SECRET WORLD WAR

D

During the American

II

War, both the Union and the Confederacy used rotary machines to encipher and deCivil

cipher secret messages. Generally, however, more simple

methods were used— the substitution of one word

for an-

other in...

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