All DOMlflWSOti World War II was fought not only by huge masses of armed forces. It was often fought, too, by small groups as well as individual
men and women
without uniforms or public recognition.
important, and occasionally reprehensible,
carried out behind
the scenes that was to remain secret until
II goes be-
hind the closed doors to unveil the courage and cowardice, the patriotism and treason, the glory and the
infamy that was tory
as real to Allied vic-
and Axis defeat
Day landings or the
were the D-
Battle of Britain.
Spies, counterspies, Enigma, Ultra
underground railway, American concentration camps, and the atomic
of the facets of the II that
inspected in this in-
formed and readable volume.
Boston? fuGftc £>i$rarij
Turcfiased with (Federal! (funds
The Secret Wbrld Vfor
2, 29, 32, 81, 87, 88, 90, 92;
Compton's Encyclopedia, photo by 51, 98; U.S. 75, 109;
p. 42; U.S.
Air Force: pp. 48, 57; U.S.
and Don Lawson: pp. 58
61, 96, 101.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Bibliography: p. Includes index.
World War, 1939-1945— Secret service—Juvenile World War, 1939-1945— Secret service.
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress: p.
Bill Cassin: p. 15; U.S. Signal Corps: pp. 23,
Air Force: pp.
and bottom), 60
TO MY GREAT, GOOD FRIEND R.
W. "rock" CANNON,
WHO WAS ALWAYS THERE WHEN THE WHISTLE BLEW IN
Mysterious Death of Admiral
Solving the War's Most Difficult Riddle
Codes and Ciphers in World
Spies Inside the United States
Spies in Great Britain
V VI VII VIII
and American Agents Were Trained
Behind the Lines
X How America XI XII XIII
Helped Sink the Bismarck
Germany's Secret Vengeance Weapons Japan's Aerial
the United States
American Concentration Camps
XIV Wartime Propaganda and
XV The Best Kept Secret of the War
55 67 7
84 94 104
The Mysterious Death of Admiral Nhnnannoto On
a crystal-clear tropical
in the spring of 1943
peak of the fighting between the United States and
Japan in the
Mitsubishi twin-engined bombers approached Kahili port on
bombers, were escorted by six Zero fighters manned by the top fighter pilots in the Japanese air force. Their role was
which were carrying extremely
to protect the Bettys,
in chief of the
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, comCombined War Fleet of Japan, and
Admiral Yamamoto was one of Japan's great war heroes. He had planned the highly successful attack against the U.S. Pacific for the
throughout the land.
Pearl Harbor, which started the war
numerous other air strikes including the one on Midway Is-
States, as well as Pacific,
he was scheduled
on Bougainville on one leg of an inspection tour of Japanese bases. He and his staff had left the Japanese stronghold of Rabaul at dawn. Having flown the 300 miles (482 km) to Bougainville exactly on time— Yamamoto demanded strict
operations— the Bettys and their
Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto,
whose plane was ambushed by American flyers was broken.
after the Japanese secret code
THE MYSTERIOUS DEATH OF ADMIRAL YAMAMOTO escorts
were now preparing
was precisely 9:35 a.m.
exactly at this
P-38 Lightning fighter planes boiled out of the
sun and, wing-guns blinking death and destruction,
tacked the startled Japanese.
free-for-all dogfight that
followed lasted only a few
were devastating for the Japanese.
Both Betty bombers were destroyed and their passengers killed. Four Zeroes were also shot down. Just one P-38 Lightning failed ful
P-38 fighter pilots did not encounter Yatheir escorts
ambush. U.S. Naval
had known ahead of time every step that
the Japanese naval hero
mamoto's Betty bombers and
had indeed been
would take on
his inspection tour.
only gamble was in the timing of the attack. But this
was not really a gamble either, for U.S. Intelligence also
about arriving on time.
In this instance he had kept a rendezvous with death— virtually to the split second.
had U.S. Intelligence obtained
By breaking the Japanese naval code. When Yamamoto's tour and timetable were planned, its details were sent in code by radio to all of the air and naval base commanders whom the admiral planned to visit. Some of Yation?
mamoto's aides thought the information should be
ered by hand by couriers, but they were overruled by top
insisted the Japa-
nese code could not be broken. Within hours after the in-
formation had been transmitted, however, U.S. Naval Intelligence it
had not only intercepted
but had also decoded
a "plain English text" to the key
on Guadalcanal Island
in the Pacific.
ordered the mission against Yamamoto.
Solving the Vfars
Most Difficult Riddle An
war began long before actual
World War II. masses of armed men
was a war fought
fighting broke out in
not by great
fought by small groups of
and often unarmed. The general public almost
never heard about
war fought between the
and agencies of rival nations, but it was a real war nonetheless and one that was every bit as important as the armed warfare that was to follow. And even telligence agents
conflict began, the secret
the various intelligence organizations continued— just as
continues today during peacetime.
Germans had developed an electronic cipher machine that enabled them to send secret diplomatic and military messages in what they In Europe in the early 1930s the
believed to be unbreakable code. This machine was called
"Enigma," meaning a
was indeed so complicated
and sent out such complex messages that for a time it appeared that the Germans were right— they had created a riddle that they alone could solve.
This had been a goal
for thousands of years— to create a
WAR S MOST DIFFICULT RIDDLE
secret writing that
word cryptology which ,
the science of secret writing
translation or deciphering, comes from two ancient Greek words, kryptos, meaning "hidden," and logos, meaning "word" or "speech." As far back as biblical times code was used. In the Old
Testament, for example, the word Shesach
"Babel" or "Babylon." Codes were also used by the early Assyrians
same meaning and are used interchangeably)
or cryptography (the words have
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
when diplomats began
other and with their government.
secretly with each
systems they de-
veloped for secret writing, called enciphering, are the basis for
most of today's codes and ciphers.
In America, methods of secret communication were used
by George Washington during the American Revolution.
Not only did Washington invent
a code with
which he and
his intelligence agents inside the British lines could
municate, but he also furnished them with an invisible ink called "secret stain,"
which was made from a formula that
modern chemists have been unable
could be written in secret stain ink between the lines of an innocent letter written in regular ink.
message would remain invisible until brushed with another liquid, the formula for which was also
Washington. Other so-called invisible inks became clearly visible
when held over
a candle flame,
by America's revolutionary war leader and
vented a rotary or wheel cipher machine that was not unlike the
German Enigma machine
rotors were turned by hand, of course, ically,
too produced virtually unbreakable secret
THE SECRET WORLD WAR
During the American
War, both the Union and the Confederacy used rotary machines to encipher and deCivil
cipher secret messages. Generally, however, more simple
methods were used— the substitution of one word