The Ultimate Linux Handbook 2016

EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Paul Newman GROUP ART DIRECTOR Graham Dalzell MARKETING MANAGER Richard Stephens TRADE - pdf za darmo

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EDITORIAL TEAM ART EDITORS

EDITOR

CONTRIBUTORS

Jamie Schildhauer Efrain Hernandez-Mendoza

Alex Cox

Neil Mohr, Mayank Sharma, Jolyon Brown, Jonni Bidwell, Neil Bothwick, Nick Peers, Alexander Tolstoy, Mike Saunders, Afnan Rehman, Mihalis Tsoukalos

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Graham Barlow

IMAGES

ThinkStock, Future Photo Studio

MANAGEMENT

MARKETING

CIRCULATION

EDITORIAL DIRECTOR

MARKETING MANAGER

TRADE MARKETING MANAGER

Paul Newman

Richard Stephens

Juliette Winyard Phone +44(0)7551 150984

GROUP ART DIRECTOR

Graham Dalzell

PRINT & PRODUCTION

LICENSING

PRODUCTION MANAGER

SENIOR LICENSING & SYNDICATION MANAGER

Mark Constance

Matt Ellis [email protected] Phone +44(0)1225 442244

PRODUCTION CONTROLLER

Nola Cokely

SUBSCRIPTIONS UK reader order line & enquiries: 0844 848 2852 Overseas reader order line & enquiries: +44 (0)1604 251045 Online enquiries: www.myfavouritemagazines.co.uk

PRINTED IN THE UK BY William Gibbons on behalf of Future. Distributed in the UK by Seymour Distribution Ltd, 2 East Poultry Avenue, London EC1A 9PT. Phone: 020 7429 4000

Future Publishing Limited Quay House, The Ambury, Bath, BA1 1UA, UK www.futureplc.com www.myfavouritemagazines.co.uk Phone +44 ( 0 )1225 442244 Fax +44 ( 0 )1225 732275 All contents copyright © 2016 Future Publishing Limited or published under licence. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be reproduced, stored, transmitted or used in any way without the prior written permission of the publisher. 'VUVSF1VCMJTIJOH-JNJUFE DPNQBOZOVNCFS JTSFHJTUFSFEJO&OHMBOEBOE8BMFT3FHJTUFSFEPGmDF3FHJTUFSFEPGmDF2VBZ)PVTF 5IF"NCVSZ #BUI #"6" All information contained in this publication is for information only and is, as far as we are aware, correct at the time of going to press. Future cannot accept any responsibility for errors or inaccuracies in such information. You are advised to contact manufacturers and retailers directly with regard to the price and other details of products or services referred to in this publication. Apps and websites mentioned in this publication are not under our control. We are not responsible for their contents or any changes or updates to them. If you submit unsolicited material to us, you automatically grant Future a licence to publish your submission in whole or in part in all editions of the magazine, including licensed editions worldwide and in any physical or digital format throughout the world. Any material you submit is sent at your risk and, although every care is taken, neither Future nor its employees, agents or subcontractors shall be liable for loss or damage.

Future is an award-winning international media group and leading digital business. We reach more than 57 million international consumers a month and create world-class content and advertising solutions for passionate consumers online, on tablet & smartphone and in print. Future plc is a public company quoted on the London 4UPDL&YDIBOHF TZNCPM'653  www.futureplc.com

Chief executive ;JMMBI#ZOH5IPSOF Non-executive chairman Peter Allen &KLHIÀQDQFLDORIÀFHU1FOOZ-BELJO#SBOE Managing director, Magazines Joe McEvoy 5FM   

We encourage you to recycle this magazine, either through your usual household recyclable waste collection service or at recycling site.

We are committed to using only magazine paper XIJDI JT EFSJWFE GSPN XFMM NBOBHFE  DFSUJmFE forestry and chlorine-free manufacture. Future Publishing and its paper suppliers have been JOEFQFOEFOUMZ DFSUJmFE JO BDDPSEBODF XJUI UIF SVMFTPGUIFø'4$ 'PSFTU4UFXBSETIJQ$PVODJM 

Welcome!

… to the only guide you need to go from Linux enthusiast to certified Linux professional! Linux (or, if we’re being correct, ‘GNU/Linux’, which is a mouthful and not something we’re going to type every time –there’s an extensive Wikipedia article on the naming convention and the squabbles it’s caused that comes recommended if you’re struggling to sleep) forms the foundation of countless brilliant free desktop operating systems. Since it was first developed in 1991 (built on top of code from the GNU project which began in 1984 – again, we’re not getting into that argument) it’s grown into a clone of UNIX so mature that it’s pushed its inspiration into the shade. Linux does a lot more than you might think to prop up servers and systems the

Ultimate Handbooks are designed to give you a complete guide to a device or piece of software you own. We aim to help you get more from the products you love and we guarantee you’ll get the following from each book…

world over despite an environment that can seem, for newcomers, quite intimidating. If you’ve dabbled in Linux before, perhaps as a straight desktop OS, it’s possible you’ve never experimented with its deepest recesses. And we’re willing to suggest that even if you’ve spent considerable time with the OS there are aspects of it which you don’t fully understand. So we’ve grabbed a number of leading Linux experts and milked them for their most pertinent tips, tricks and tutorials –by the time you’re finished with the Ultimate Linux Handbook you should be Linux Professional Institute qualified, have an amazing local network, a fully custom desktop,. and much more besides. Hope you enjoy the guide, and happy hacking. Alex Cox, Editor

when you need to know how to do something or solve a problem

we’ll show you the best ways to do everything

O New skills you can take with you

O Clear recommendations for other

through your life and apply at home or even in the workplace

products, accessories and services you can use with your device or software to get the best possible results

O Expert advice to help you do more O A reference guide you can keep on

your desk or next to your computer and consult time and time again

with your hardware and software – from solving new problems to discovering new things to try out,

O Advice you can take everywhere

thanks to the free digital edition of this book – see page 178 for more details

How are we doing? Email [email protected] and let us know if we’ve lived up to our promises!

5

Linux 101

Take your FOSS knowledge further and master your free OS Start your Linux journey and with tutorials and end up certified by the Linux guides from the Linux Professional Institute experts!

6

Desktop Make your day-to-day experience perfect with customisations and more

10

Installing

59

Pick a distro

14

Terminal basics

70

Hack your desktop

16

Apt-get

78

File sharing

18

Terminal programs

82

Virtual machines

20

Packages

24

School of Linux: Hardware

28

School of Linux: Boot process

32

School of Linux: Filesystem

36

School of Linux: RPM & Deb

40

School of Linux: Command line

44

School of Linux: More command line

48

School of Linux: Processes

52

School of Linux: Links & permissions

Servers

Sysadmin

Security

Do more with your network and the cloud by creating dedicated servers

Learn the skills you need to properly administer your network and its machines

Stay vigilant, stay safe. Look after your Linux and it will look after you

88

Debian

130 Systemd

160 Malware

92

Ubuntu

134 Monitoring

164 Fedora Security Lab

96

CentOS

138

168 Kernel patching

SystemTap

100 Apache

142 TCP/IP

104 Wordpress

146 LVM Snapshots

109 CoreOS

150 Bash scripting

117

154 Multi-booting

AWS

172

Boot troubleshooting

7

Linux 101 Installing Terminal basics Apt-get Terminal programs Packages School of Linux: Hardware School of Linux: Boot process School of Linux: Filesystem School of Linux: RPM & Deb School of Linux: Command line School of Linux: More command line School of Linux: Processes School of Linux: Links & permissions

10 14 16 18 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52

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8

9

Ubuntu: Quick install guide Linux isn’t scary or hard. You can be up and running in just 4 minutes, honestly! Would we lie to you? Don’t answer that…

space of Windows. The minimum space is around 7GB, obviously more is always better, but to try out Ubuntu just 10GB is more than enough.

Easy ways to Linux If you’re not a big Linux user then you’ll probably won’t want to destroy your existing Windows or 3m 35s Mac system. The truth is you don’t need to either, Linux is flexible enough that it can be run in a number of ways, eg beside, on top or alongside most other operating systems and on most types of hardware, and from virtual versions to versions running off spare USB drives, DVDs or on low-cost hardware like the Raspberry Pi. Booting from a live disc is the easiest and fastest way to try Linux and Ubuntu. In our extensive testing procedure we managed to get Ubuntu loaded up in less than four minutes. Getting the disc to boot, however, can be easier said than done. See the box (Disc Booting Problems, p11) If your system doesn’...

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