Warfare in the Western World

WARFARE IN THE WESTERN ^WORID VOLUME ^, ^•i.J^ .'i-j^ MILITARY OPERATIONS FROM 1600 TO 1671 •WW^w^^^vf^^^^^^Kr^^^^^O^B/** 'Si - pdf za darmo

14 downloads 14028 Views 59MB Size

Recommend Stories


General Military - Besieged, Siege Warfare in the Ancient World
CIntroduction he history of siege warfare stretches back into the 2nd millennium BC. By that time, the - pdf za darmo

Armoured Warfare in the Battle for Normandy
The most common type of panzer deployed to Normandy was the Panzer Mk IV Ausf H and Ausf J. Rommel had - pdf za darmo

Armoured Warfare in the North African Campaign
An M3 Grant medium tank in North Africa. (US Army/NARA) First published in Great Britain in 2011 by PEN & SWORD MILITARY - pdf za darmo

Armoured Warfare in the Korean War
Tank warfare in Korea was something completely new because of the geography involved. (US DoD) First published in Great Britain in 2012 by - pdf za darmo

Story Transcript


WARFARE

IN

THE

WESTERN ^WORID VOLUME ^, ^•i.J^

.'i-j^

MILITARY OPERATIONS FROM 1600 TO 1671 •WW ^w^^^vf^^^^^^Kr^^^^^O^B/**

'SiW

Warfare

in

the

WESTERN^WORLD VOLUME

I

Military Operations

From 1600

to 1071

Gruber

Robert A. Doughty

Ira D.

United States Military Academy

Rice University

Roy

Mark Grimsley

K. Flint

United States Military Academy

The Ohio State University

George C. Herring

Donald D. Horward

University of Kentucky

Florida State University

John A. Lynn

Willian\son

University of Illinois

The Ohio State University

HOUGHTON MIFFUN COMPANY Boston



New York

Murray

Custom Publishing Editor: Martin Lew Custom Publishing Production Manager: Kathleen McCourt Custom Publishing Project Coordinator: Katie Finn Acquisitions: James Miller

Development: Pat Wakeley Editorial Production: Melissa

Alwyn

Ray

Velasquez Art Editing: Diane Grossman Production Coordination: Richard Tonachel Photo Research: Picture Research Consultants, Inc Sandi Rygiel & Pembroke Herbert Design:

R.

Cover Designer: Joel Gendron Cover Photograph: Photodisc,

Inc.

The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not purport to reflect the Academy, the Department of the Army, or the

position of the United States Military

Department of Defense.

For permission to use copyrighted n\aterials, grateful acknowledgement is made to the copyright holders listed on page A-1, which is hereby cor\sidered an extension of this copyright page.

Copyright Copyright

© 1996 by D.C. Heath and Company. © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any ir\formation storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Houghton Mifflin Company unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Address inquiries to College Permissions, Houghton 02116-3764. Mifflin Company, 222 Berkeley Street, Boston,

MA

Printed in the United States of America.

ISBN 0-618-17993-3 N00202 5

6

7

8

9-KP-04

^1 Houghton MiffUn Custom Publishing 222 Berkeley Street

Address

all



Boston,

MA 02116

correspondence and order information to the above address.

PREFACE We

first talked of writing a history of warfare in the Western world during the spring of 1985. We knew that a number of books dealt broadly with the history of war, usually emphasizing the

between war and society. We also knew that there were several multi-volume histories of military operations as well as a multitude of books treating particular wars and campaigns. But we could not find a general history of military operations in the Western world that was both comprehensive and coherent. We decided, therefore, to write such a book. We intended that our book should be sound and readable and that it should appeal to students, to general readers, and to anyone seeking an authoritative reference relationships

on warfare.

To give our book the depth and breadth we thought essential to understanding four centuries of warfare, we planned a work of two volumes and six parts. The first volume, which begins with Gustavus Adolphus's synthesis of early seventeenth-century European warfare, analyzes the development of limited warfare in seventeenth and eighteenth-century Europe; the emergence of the citizen soldier and mobile, decisive warfare in the era of the French Revolution and Napoleon; and the adoption of near total warfare in the United States Civil War and the application of Prussian organizational skills to European warfare of the mid-nineteenth century. The second volume, which begins with the small wars of the late nineteenth century, considers successively the systematic harnessing of human and material resources for the total warfare of the First World War, the continuation of total warfare in an even more virulent form during the Second World War, and the resort to varieties of limited warfare since 1945, since the creation of atomic and nuclear weapons. Because each of the parts of our history is self-sufficient and because several deal with topics that are of special interest to readers, those parts

The are published separately. Three are available as individual volumes: American Civil War: The Emergence of Total Warfare^ World War II: Total Warfare Around the Globe; and Limited Warfare in the Nuclear Age. A fourth volume, drawn broadly from Warfare in the Western World, is titled American Military History and the Evolution of Warfare in the Western World. Each of these derivative volumes, like its parent, is profusely illustrated; indeed Warfare in the Western World contains more than 150 photographs and an equal

number of maps drawn

especially for the work.

In undertaking a book on such an extensive and often fragmented subject as four centuries of warfare in the West, we knew that we would need the help of other scholars. Our work, then, has been a cooperative effort from its inception. Ira Gruber wrote chapters 1-5; John Lynn, chapter 6; Donald Horward, chapters 7-9; Mark Grimsley, chapters 10-14; Williamson Murray, chapters 15 and 21-26; Robert Doughty, chapters 16-20, 27, and

30-31; Roy Flint, chapter 28; and George Herring, chapter 29. Doughty and

PREFACE

Gruber contributed the Introduction and Conclusion and helped each other and the other authors to develop unifying themes. Each of us has, of course, drawn upon the work of scores of other scholars; and each has benefited from the comments of specialists, colleagues, and students who have read portions of this history. We are particularly indebted to Richard Kohn and John Shy, who read carefully an entire draft of the text and drew upon their remarkable understanding of military history and sharp critical judgment to suggest ways for improving the whole. We, and our fellow authors, are grateful to all who have had a part in creating this book. We do not imagine that we will have satisfied our critics; we do hope that they and other readers will continue to share their knowledge of warfare with us. R. A. D. and

I.

D. G.

CONTENTS Part

I

IN BRIEF

The Age of Limited War Chapter

1

1

Gustavus Adolphus and

tJie

3

Military Revolution

Part

II

Chapter 2

Toward Limited War

Europe, 1648-1714

29

Chapter 3

Limited War in Western Europe, 1714-1763

63

Chapter 4

Anglo-American Warfare, 1607-1763:

Chapter

The Emergence of the People in Arms The War for American Independence, 1775-1783: The People at War

5

The Nation Chapter 6

Chapter 7

in

III

Arms and National Warfare

Revolution in Warfare During the Age of the French Revolution

103 131

171

173

The

Rise of Napoleonic Warfare: Increasing the Scale, Speed, and

Decisiveness of Warfare

195

Chapter 8

The

237

Chapter 9

Breaking Napoleon's Power: Warfare on a

Part

in

Limits of Napoleonic Warfare

New

265

Scale

Professionalism, Industrialization, and

Mass Warfare

in

the Nineteenth Century

297

1783-1860:

Chapter 10

American Military

299

Chapter

The Beginnings of Professionalism The Civil War, 1861-1862: The Lethal Face of Battle

331

1 1

Chapter 12 Chapter 13

Chapter 14 Chapter

1

5

The The

Policy,

Civil

War, 1862: Ending the Limited War

Civil

War, 1863: Moving Democracies

359

Toward Total War

391

The Civil War, 1864-1865: Total War The Transition from Napoleonic Methods

427

to the Prussian Military System,

Vll

1815-1871

461

CONTENTS Map

Symbols

CONTENTS

Standing Armies and the Art of War

35

Preferences for Moderation Fortresses

and

Age ofVauban

Siegecraft in the

Supply: The Magazine System

Improvements

in

Weapons and

Tactics

Marlborough and Eugene: Testing the Limits of Limited War

42

The War of the Spanish Succession Marlborough and Eugene

Opening Campaigns The Blenheim Campaign

The

Limits of Limited War

Maneuver and

Siegecraft, 1

49

705-1 708

The Siege of Lille Villars

Malplaquet

Toward Limited War

O

War 1714-1763

JLimitecl

in

Western

Jtiiiirope,

63

The Standing Army and

the State

66

The Rise of Prussia Standing Armies Discipline

The Art

and Training

of Limited

War

72

Refinements in Weapons

The Magazine System Strategy

and

Tactics

Frederick, Saxe, and the

Succession War

War

77

in Silesia

and Flanders

Frederick the Great Frederick 's Silesian Wars

of the Austrian

CONTENTS

Saxe and Flanders Fontenoy

Saxe 's Last Campaigns

Frederick in the Seven Years' War

90

The Diplomatic Revolution of 1 756 Frederick's Preemptive Strikes

Rossbach

to

Leuthen

Frederick 's Last

4

Campaigns

Anglo-American Wariare, 1

ne JC/mergence

1'

oi tiie JPeopie

Anglo-Indian Warfare

1

m Arms

103

04

Virginia

Massachusetts

The

Colonial Wars

1 1

The French and Indian War

1 1

The Beginnings

War

Britain Takes Control of the

Quebec, 1758-1759

The Plains of Abraham The Conquest of Canada

b>

1

ne

War

lor

American

indepemolence,

1775-17835 TLe People

The

Beginnings:

The

Militia's

From Lexington and Concord

War

at

to

War

Bunker

Preparing for a Wider War, June 1775

Strategies for a Revolutionary

War

Plans and Preparations for

1

The Battle of Long Island:

Tactics

From Manhattan

to

Trenton

Strategies of Persuasion

to

131

132 Hill

July 1776

138

776

and

Serving Strategy

Princeton:

XI

Xll

CONTENTS

The

A

Saratoga Campaign: Conventional Interlude The

145

and Princeton

Effects of Trenton

Toward Saratoga The Battles of Freeman's Farm and Bemis Heights

A

Revolution Within a World War: Relying on the People in Arms 153 Strategic Consequences of Saratoga

The

New

Turning

Strategy Suspended, Spring

to the

and Summer

1

778

People

The Revolution

Preserved: Unconventional and Conventional Warfare in the South,

1780-1783

159

Charleston

to

King's Mountain: The British Offensive

Arrested

Cowpens

Eutaw

to

A

Yorktown:

PART

II

Springs: The Attrition of British Power

Conventional

The Nation

in

End

to

an Unconvent...

Life Enjoy

When life gives you a hundred reasons to cry, show life that you have a thousand reasons to smile

Get in touch

Social

© Copyright 2016 - 2019 AZPDF.PL - All rights reserved.