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^'a'fIRST BOOK/REVISED EDITION
78803 -Snyder, L.
World War II
San Rafael Public Library 1100 E Street
1111 TTUSI 8984
DATE DUE ^^AY
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MAY 2 2
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2 7 2003
MARJ.3 2004 JUN 2 3 2 04
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MAY 1 FEB
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WARN BY LOUIS
A FIRST BOOK REVISED EDITION FRANKLIN WATTS NEW YORK LONDON TORONTO SYDNEY [
HARRY, LINDA, BRAD, AND IVAN SNYDER
Cover photograph courtesy Photos courtesy 62
United Press International
United Press International: pp.
26, 29, 36, 56, 62 (bottom), 64, 69, 72; Institute of
porary History and Wiener Library, Limited:
Photographers Guild: search:
3, 12, 15, 21, 24,
32; Franklin D. Roosevelt Library: pp. 47, 80;
U.S. Airforce Photograph; p. 75.
Library of Congress Cataloging
Snyder, Louis Leo, 1907-
(A First book)
the important events and peo-
World War II. 1. World War, 1939-1945—Juvenile Title. World War, 1939-1945.] D743.7.S5 1981 940.53 ISBN 0-531-04333-9 ple of
1958, 1981 by Louis L. Snyder reserved Printed in the United States of America
Copyright All rights
SAN RAFAEL PUBLIC LIBRARY SAN RAFAEL, CALIFORNIA
ROAD TO WAR 4 THE MAN CALLED ADOLF HITLER HITLER LEADS THE GERMANS 7 THE AXIS CHOOSES WAR 9 STEPS OF AGGRESSION 10
SINKING OF THE ATHENIA 13
THE SIT-DOWN WAR
LIGHTNING WAR IN THE WEST 16 RETREAT: MIRACLE AT DUNKERQUE 17 BRITAIN FINDS HER WAR LEADER: WINSTON CHURCHILL 20
MECHANIZED SHARKS OF THE SEA 22 FALL OF FRANCE 23 THE BRITISH FIGHT BACK: THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRAITORS HELP THE NAZIS 28 THE NAZI DICTATOR AS MASTER OF EUROPE 30 REVOLT AGAINST THE NAZI "NEW ORDER" 30 UNITED STATES: ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY 33 NAZI GERMANY TURNS ON THE SOVIET UNION 34
PEARL HARBOR: JAPAN ATTACKS 38 FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT: AMERICA'S WAR LEADER 42 RISING SUN OF NIPPON 43 WAR ON THE HOME FRONT 45 SEESAW WAR IN NORTH AFRICA 46 BEGINNING OF THE END 50 THE DEAD MAN WHO FOOLED THE NAZIS 51 THE ITALIANS GIVE UP 53 D-DAY: THE GREAT NORMANDY INVASION 54 "NUTS!" SAID THE GENERAL 58 ALLIES WIN THE WAR AT SEA 60 ISLAND HOPPING IN THE PACIFIC 63 KAMIKAZES: JAPAN'S SUICIDE PILOTS 66 SMASHING GERMANY FROM THE AIR 68 DEATH COMES TO THREE WAR LEADERS 71 THE DEADLY A-BOMB 73 THE WAR ENDS 77
PLANNING A WORLD WITHOUT WAR 78 UNITED NATIONS 79 THE COSTS OF WAR 82
WORLD WAR WORLD WAR INDEX 88
was the most widespread and
lasted for six years of conquest, slaughter, misery, famine,
the history of
and death. It
was fought by more people about 70 million in all with more machines and weapons, over a greater area than any war
The cost in human lives was tremendous and loss of property was so great that we can set no proper figure on either. All this to rid the world of Germany's Hitler, Italy's Mussolini, and Japan's Tojo.
Europe after World War I; by 1941 l-litler would control most of it (see page 35).
BLITZKRIEG— LIGHTNING September
by dictator Adolf First in their
it well it was one of the most The mighty German Army, led
crashed across the borders
dive bombers, with shrieking whistles
to strike fear into the hearts of the Polish peo-
German aircraft blasted Polish planes on the ground. Then they bombed railroads and highways and dropped their deadly cargoes to smash Warsaw and other cities. It was a violent surprise attack by massed air forces. Next came soldiers on motorcycles and crews of armored ple.
cars and tanks to prepare the way. Finally, regular infantry the foot soldiers
to the minute,
was a new
kind of war.
which means "lightning war." They had the most powerful force in the world with which to wage it. They were lucky to have good weather. The ground was level and just right for this kind of speedy attack. Now the Russians, who had signed a pact with the Germans, pushed into Poland from the east. Russians and Germans were going to divide the country between them. Poland had no chance whatever against these two great powers. Her little army had to fight on two fronts. Within two weeks Warsaw was in German hands. In a little over a month the Germans had control of the countryside as Russians moved in from the east. This was the way World War began. II
down on Warsaw.
ROAD TO WAR The causes
war are never simple and that is true There were many causes. Several arose out of
1918 after World War Russian. The Germans were bitter about the Treaty of Versailles at the end of the war. They lost all their colonies and about one-eighth of their land in Europe. They had to return Alsace-Lorraine to France. Their proud navy, second only to that of Britain, was swept from the seas. Their army was cut down to 100,000 men. Germans were angry about Poland, their neighbor to the east. After World War Poland was given an outlet to the sea. Four empires were swept away
— German, Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, and
This strip of territory right
called the Polish Corridor.
through German lands. The Germans never forgave the
World War for splitting their country into two parts. Allies hoped that World War would be "the war to end all wars" but it did not turn out that way. Sad to say, that war, instead of healing wounds, actually created new ones. When Germany grew strong again, she tried to take Allies of
the countries allied against
borrowed billions of dollars from the United States, promising pay it back over a period of sixty-two years. They expected to get the money from Germany by demanding reparations, or payments, for war damage. But Germany had no way to pay so much money. Starting in 1929 there came a worldwide depression, a time when millions of people were poor and out of work. The Depression hit Germany hard. She had lost almost everything
she had in the war and she was in debt to the victor nations. In such times, when people are cold and hungry and see no hope ahead, it is sometimes easy for one determined person to drive them where he wants them to go. Such people may
dictate to the people; they
exactly what to do. They promise everything dictators that
allowed to run the country. Dictators believe
are like animals
lambs. They think of themselves as tigers, and believe they
should rule the lambs.
War three strong dictators arose. They were Germany, Mussolini in Italy, and Tojo in Japan. These men said that democracy was "a corpse." In a free country they might have found it hard to make the people follow them, however fine their promises. But Germans, Italians, and Japanese had never known real freedom. Most were used to After World
leaders Instead of working out their
Benito Mussolini a journalist lets.
a representative government.
dictator of Italy
He was pamph-
were called Fascists. They believed in a government that would suppress opposition by
He built new houses, new factories. One of his proud boasts was that he had made the Italian trains run on time! But he demanded that the people obey him absolutely. Like
alty of the people by making improvements at home.
other dictators, he held control of the army and the police.
Anyone who refused
obey was sent
Mussolini's real ambition pire.
said that Italy had too
needed more land
to rule a great colonial
to prison or
land and too
grow and become
a great nation.
He wanted the whole Mediterranean Sea to lake mare nostrum, which means "our
sea." Mussolini glorified war and sent his armies into Africa to
land by force.
General Hideki Tojo was the leader of the war party in won power in that tiny island by promising the people an empire in Asia. Under Tojo's leadership Japan attacked China in 1931. In 1932 Japan seized the rich province Japan. He
Manchuria and renamed
THE MAN CALLED ADOLF HITLER The
and most important, of this trio of twentieth-century dictators was Adolf Hitler. Americans thought he was a comical figure with his Charlie Chaplin mustache and staring eyes. third,
But there was nothing funny about this squat
raucous voice and jabbing fingers. He was not even a German. He was an Austrian who came to Germany and built up a political party called National Socialists, or Nazis. He was a gifted orator who had the power to arouse huge groups of people and turn them against others. Germans suffering from hurt pride after the loss of World War turned eagerly to him. This strange man promised the jobless and angr...