World War II

WORLD yiOkR II - Jvi^l^MIS L. SNYDER ^'a'fIRST BOOK/REVISED EDITION Ml^h -Snyder, L.World War II78803 - pdf za darmo

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yiOkR II WORLD Jvi^l^MIS SNYDER L.

-

^'a'fIRST BOOK/REVISED EDITION

Ml^h

78803 -Snyder, L.

World War II

San Rafael Public Library 1100 E Street

San Rafael,

CA 94901

1111 TTUSI 8984

DATE DUE ^^AY

OCT

1

9 199B

2 1996

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NOV

MAY 2 2

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7 2005

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iUH t ^ 19971=^ JUL 2 1997

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MAY 1 FEB



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199P

2

WLIX

1

R

JUN

1

I

2001

1 2001 PRINTED

IN U.S.A.

:

WARN BY LOUIS

L.

SNYDER

A FIRST BOOK REVISED EDITION FRANKLIN WATTS NEW YORK LONDON TORONTO SYDNEY [

I

|

1

|

1981

X y^^'^^

BOOK

THIS

IS

FOR

HARRY, LINDA, BRAD, AND IVAN SNYDER

Cover photograph courtesy Photos courtesy 62

of: U.S.

of:

United Press International

Navy Photograph:

United Press International: pp.

(top);

pp.

vi,

26, 29, 36, 56, 62 (bottom), 64, 69, 72; Institute of

porary History and Wiener Library, Limited:

Photographers Guild: search:

p.

p.

18;

YIVO

41, 44,

3, 12, 15, 21, 24,

p. 8;

Institute for

Contem-

Freelance

Jewish Re-

32; Franklin D. Roosevelt Library: pp. 47, 80;

U.S. Airforce Photograph; p. 75.

Maps courtesy

of

Vantage

Art, Inc.

Library of Congress Cataloging

in

Publication Data

of

World War

Snyder, Louis Leo, 1907-

World War

II.

(A First book)

Rev. ed.

of:

The

first

book

II.

Includes index.

Summary: Spotlights

the important events and peo-

World War II. 1. World War, 1939-1945—Juvenile Title. World War, 1939-1945.] D743.7.S5 1981 940.53 ISBN 0-531-04333-9 ple of

literature.

[1.

I.

81-5021

AACR2

©

1958, 1981 by Louis L. Snyder reserved Printed in the United States of America

Copyright All rights

6

5

4

3

2

1

SAN RAFAEL PUBLIC LIBRARY SAN RAFAEL, CALIFORNIA

-_J16603_

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

1

e/./7Z/
WAR

2

ROAD TO WAR 4 THE MAN CALLED ADOLF HITLER HITLER LEADS THE GERMANS 7 THE AXIS CHOOSES WAR 9 STEPS OF AGGRESSION 10

6

SINKING OF THE ATHENIA 13

THE SIT-DOWN WAR

14

LIGHTNING WAR IN THE WEST 16 RETREAT: MIRACLE AT DUNKERQUE 17 BRITAIN FINDS HER WAR LEADER: WINSTON CHURCHILL 20

MECHANIZED SHARKS OF THE SEA 22 FALL OF FRANCE 23 THE BRITISH FIGHT BACK: THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN TRAITORS HELP THE NAZIS 28 THE NAZI DICTATOR AS MASTER OF EUROPE 30 REVOLT AGAINST THE NAZI "NEW ORDER" 30 UNITED STATES: ARSENAL OF DEMOCRACY 33 NAZI GERMANY TURNS ON THE SOVIET UNION 34

25

PEARL HARBOR: JAPAN ATTACKS 38 FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT: AMERICA'S WAR LEADER 42 RISING SUN OF NIPPON 43 WAR ON THE HOME FRONT 45 SEESAW WAR IN NORTH AFRICA 46 BEGINNING OF THE END 50 THE DEAD MAN WHO FOOLED THE NAZIS 51 THE ITALIANS GIVE UP 53 D-DAY: THE GREAT NORMANDY INVASION 54 "NUTS!" SAID THE GENERAL 58 ALLIES WIN THE WAR AT SEA 60 ISLAND HOPPING IN THE PACIFIC 63 KAMIKAZES: JAPAN'S SUICIDE PILOTS 66 SMASHING GERMANY FROM THE AIR 68 DEATH COMES TO THREE WAR LEADERS 71 THE DEADLY A-BOMB 73 THE WAR ENDS 77

AFTERMATH

77

PLANNING A WORLD WITHOUT WAR 78 UNITED NATIONS 79 THE COSTS OF WAR 82

WORLD WAR WORLD WAR INDEX 88

II

WORDS

II

DATES

84

86

WORLD WAR

N

INTRODUCTION war

It

was the most widespread and

It

lasted for six years of conquest, slaughter, misery, famine,

costly

in

the history of

mankind.

and death. It





was fought by more people about 70 million in all with more machines and weapons, over a greater area than any war

in history.

The cost in human lives was tremendous and loss of property was so great that we can set no proper figure on either. All this to rid the world of Germany's Hitler, Italy's Mussolini, and Japan's Tojo.

Opposite: this

is tlie

map

of

Europe after World War I; by 1941 l-litler would control most of it (see page 35).



BLITZKRIEG— LIGHTNING September

WAR 1,

1939.

important dates

by dictator Adolf First in their

Remember

in all

Hitler,

came Stuka

wings

history.



it well it was one of the most The mighty German Army, led

crashed across the borders

of Poland.

dive bombers, with shrieking whistles

to strike fear into the hearts of the Polish peo-

German aircraft blasted Polish planes on the ground. Then they bombed railroads and highways and dropped their deadly cargoes to smash Warsaw and other cities. It was a violent surprise attack by massed air forces. Next came soldiers on motorcycles and crews of armored ple.

cars and tanks to prepare the way. Finally, regular infantry the foot soldiers

—trained

to the minute,

moved

in

to finish

the job.

This

was a new

kind of war.

Germans

called

it

Blitzkrieg,

which means "lightning war." They had the most powerful force in the world with which to wage it. They were lucky to have good weather. The ground was level and just right for this kind of speedy attack. Now the Russians, who had signed a pact with the Germans, pushed into Poland from the east. Russians and Germans were going to divide the country between them. Poland had no chance whatever against these two great powers. Her little army had to fight on two fronts. Within two weeks Warsaw was in German hands. In a little over a month the Germans had control of the countryside as Russians moved in from the east. This was the way World War began. II

Incendiary

bombs

rain

down on Warsaw.

ROAD TO WAR The causes

War War

II.

war are never simple and that is true There were many causes. Several arose out of

of

of

World World

I.

1918 after World War Russian. The Germans were bitter about the Treaty of Versailles at the end of the war. They lost all their colonies and about one-eighth of their land in Europe. They had to return Alsace-Lorraine to France. Their proud navy, second only to that of Britain, was swept from the seas. Their army was cut down to 100,000 men. Germans were angry about Poland, their neighbor to the east. After World War Poland was given an outlet to the sea. Four empires were swept away

in

I

— German, Austro-Hungarian, Turkish, and

I,

This strip of territory right

was

called the Polish Corridor.

It

ran

through German lands. The Germans never forgave the

World War for splitting their country into two parts. Allies hoped that World War would be "the war to end all wars" but it did not turn out that way. Sad to say, that war, instead of healing wounds, actually created new ones. When Germany grew strong again, she tried to take Allies of

I

The

I



revenge.

During World

War

I

the countries allied against

Germany

borrowed billions of dollars from the United States, promising pay it back over a period of sixty-two years. They expected to get the money from Germany by demanding reparations, or payments, for war damage. But Germany had no way to pay so much money. Starting in 1929 there came a worldwide depression, a time when millions of people were poor and out of work. The Depression hit Germany hard. She had lost almost everything

to

she had in the war and she was in debt to the victor nations. In such times, when people are cold and hungry and see no hope ahead, it is sometimes easy for one determined person to drive them where he wants them to go. Such people may

become

They

dictators.

dictate to the people; they

exactly what to do. They promise everything dictators that

—are

if

them

tell

only they

—the

allowed to run the country. Dictators believe

human beings

are like animals

—strong

tigers

and weak

lambs. They think of themselves as tigers, and believe they

should rule the lambs.

War three strong dictators arose. They were Germany, Mussolini in Italy, and Tojo in Japan. These men said that democracy was "a corpse." In a free country they might have found it hard to make the people follow them, however fine their promises. But Germans, Italians, and Japanese had never known real freedom. Most were used to After World

I

Hitler in

following strong

problems

in

leaders Instead of working out their

Benito Mussolini a journalist lets.

own

a representative government.

who had

became

written a

dictator of Italy

number

in

1922.

of revolutionary

He was pamph-

were called Fascists. They believed in a government that would suppress opposition by

His followers

dictatorial

force.

When he

first

came

into

power, Mussolini

won

the loy-

He built new houses, new factories. One of his proud boasts was that he had made the Italian trains run on time! But he demanded that the people obey him absolutely. Like

alty of the people by making improvements at home.

new

roads,

other dictators, he held control of the army and the police.

Anyone who refused

to

obey was sent

Mussolini's real ambition pire.

He

He

was

said that Italy had too

felt Italy

needed more land

even

killed.

to rule a great colonial

little

in

to prison or

land and too

which

to

many

em-

people.

grow and become



a great nation.

become an

He wanted the whole Mediterranean Sea to lake mare nostrum, which means "our

Italian

sea." Mussolini glorified war and sent his armies into Africa to

take

new

land by force.

General Hideki Tojo was the leader of the war party in won power in that tiny island by promising the people an empire in Asia. Under Tojo's leadership Japan attacked China in 1931. In 1932 Japan seized the rich province Japan. He

of

Manchuria and renamed

it

Manchukuo.

THE MAN CALLED ADOLF HITLER The

and most important, of this trio of twentieth-century dictators was Adolf Hitler. Americans thought he was a comical figure with his Charlie Chaplin mustache and staring eyes. third,

But there was nothing funny about this squat

little

man

with

raucous voice and jabbing fingers. He was not even a German. He was an Austrian who came to Germany and built up a political party called National Socialists, or Nazis. He was a gifted orator who had the power to arouse huge groups of people and turn them against others. Germans suffering from hurt pride after the loss of World War turned eagerly to him. This strange man promised the jobless and angr...

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